Skip to main content

Full text of "The poetics of Aristotle"

See other formats

yn a bod 2 ad . wo Pog my Foote et ’ os Vt ie i) ee tee ob “1 - od ‘ “" <i ’ a tk ‘ vin G-e te ‘ 
eae ee Oe | ‘ ‘ > ™ n in ev " e - a bs ze? -@- a - s 4 y . wee 
. he > . , i= i dna -0- te Hite eG eho 2 Role dedl > > é b-te ‘ Vf fh oe . v . r ‘ , or “+ - ied pein’ 
e . wabaiboy ’ * ‘ , arava ‘ 
‘ he y = er » . é Mri 7 . 
ovat 7 ty Haid ? - be a et va ar bee) a) His - “hey - 1 epimers - ” Abo * (eG hh mye a-yie 4 4 ’ 
Ca a » a ‘ Ter me err © ' - i “ @ . , } tw" ‘ ‘ . ‘ 
hel , sofhe’ ar dae 2h eel oti oed, ella Pope Do he toh je elation tied “y= wie ; “Any ' ‘ boWete e HA Pe hedonrny ty 
4 Ares be . - , > » a — Roi eg s . — . ‘ P f-ie-w “ ‘ ‘ 
; Aerts, ~ ~ wy , . - i ri) “heb : rire 9 ~ ~é R> : ' fiw We eee ‘ ; 
Ds lente Ite Me MePhett thd ’ wr — renee rigs re brie y ta : r , . ’ +4 Sr pee Wf ‘ 4 
i > Satan ’ Lie ae wir f “< + 7-O:tar* we 508 saad nite = ‘ Hal Comey , : FAY Oe hy 
’ > a eye ees! — " Ad 7 ~ - $ ? \ 
" ) Dat i hated ‘ ‘ : “ ee eth +4 i y a * ’ oni ’ " 
. oe ‘ ’ . : . 
4! 4 ~ ° “ , . = “ - - “ 4 ‘ 
2 har " + eels Aish eden ien ies e Seon rt we) hey =e é ’ eh ’ " : - +, . , 4 
4 . , " oy . ’ ’ a ae oor) . 4 7 9- <3 wt ( “ ce a ' om ¥ 
: - fcbebona “ te , i 7 ~ vie ene ’ ¥ ae te * ‘ . " - : 4 ; 4 
om paa~ etl ’ tr? oor o-ivet , ue 4-0 ' “9 ter : ' 7] ¢ ae iw 4 Vid ogy ofl ¥-4 44 
’ oe A “ip beihe ~~ wre he 4 hated renee 7 aa x - - ve . 
4 a Rel 4 - : ~ ; 6 vr t—4 
- ae aoe “4 md “ter eae’ ve , . « d ? - i fp Fears ; - ‘ vt ; ny vo 
> . ‘ - +n , wh ew ad , dow “ - ’ 7 | a é - f ed 4 , ‘ . - ‘ + 
: eed y i ’ ae . t ' , 4 ; ’ ‘ 
‘ tod » ithe , , , i 
ur aan ‘ ” mw 4 = iw ’ rd haipere . wii 0 te end hgh he bir et ‘ “4 i . v y a4 
4 ~ i : : ‘ = : dhe . a hee ea - é t e) ; ‘ r -4 2 re 2 ae) Pwr of ot i ee 
. 4 - é‘ i . . , - > . ” Ho Hy thot 
A s . " rae ad Dw S - ; : ' 
: ‘ . - ' - - , o bed ~~ ‘ , 
‘ : he " 4 ‘ 
’ v ’ ro < . 2 F iy 
> - - - - * - ‘ ¢ - e-niery ‘ 
‘ ' ’ . Sees ; . " . ; P Py 
: he “ th 
. ‘ oo 24 ots - : — ‘ ‘ . 
4 A 
“ ' 7 } ou 7 - Oo Pent ’ haw ‘ i a 1 4 1 ' “ * 
. hoi per ' t ‘ , 
A 1 ‘ " - ’ - ‘ P = ee - - ; ; - , ae ae ee oe | i ee | rvs - 
" . > " » i ve . @ a ¥ ' - sow y . 
. + ie os ° ’ ’ ; i oth li ay - - . vy , ’ 
‘ . ‘ - i? o , ‘ “i a) . 4 
. , nS ‘ ‘ a ; . - f ; h- Sr i a-org > ‘ 4 . 
4 ; Uh tat ‘ ‘ * mh iey - ’ ‘ i ‘ - Y - i ‘ me 
” ‘ Mee? 4 : + u- ' oy ’ ‘ ' 
>. , rv . \ - bee ash ’ x . wea d- jsp. - ‘ - ; i ‘ is ‘ , ’ ' ’ . ’ 
i i “ j oe ae | : ’ > ? 4 be 3 - rey Gee) ew ~~ Le | 
4 r : % » oi ' - yf mes «it ’ - 
’ - e - ) whe ’ - ~~ " - Fg : wiie-4 ; y ~~ - oe ‘ ou ’ 
, ‘ : ' arte A “ ‘ ; i“ ‘i : wey" _ . : 
‘ - ‘ +1 te ‘ .* ‘ . « ~“W sw? 7 ~ 
4 > : ‘ ’ nt - ' ’ w-) - =) , 7 ‘ 
. ~ ‘ ’ v ad wy ls . a - , ’ , J owe Lal ’ ’ 
, ‘ ’ , ’ - . « » 
. ’ " bor oi ; 1 ’ - ; | - 
’ , bo 9 ; 4 aadh | 
oi . v ' y el ’ 
; se ‘ - . > a) 
. n ° . ee i ‘ ‘ ‘ ’ ny ees ' ree 4 a’ 
> ' e - - - ra 
’ t 
, , , ad ) . ' v ” ol wr ] ’ 
, “pw ; 
’ ) e 
> y , “ ' ’ ’ J ’ ory v ’ ’ 
" f - ' v ' 
ba tal ’ f f ‘ iw ‘ y ’ . . ’ 
é . 4 - n ’ 
- ; . 
> . we - " ’ 
F . . / 
‘ i ee “ " } 
“ : - , ‘ . s ’ J 
‘ - ’ r ‘ ‘ 
Aeris ‘ ; le ; 
- ’ ’ ’ _ . , 
, , 
F : a i ' ~j 
‘ ; ; ; 
' Py ' ' 
4 , - : 
é ie ’ 
~ ‘ ; , 
’ 4 7 iy , oe ’ . 
. 4 - ° vd ‘ tailed - vi * . ie) 
- ' . * ” me y ’ & ° 
now ' “ ’ , 
i 4 ) r t @ ; - ; ; : 
; ‘ ; ' i? p-teo : 
; j ; st ; 
‘ : a) ’ ‘ 
= ‘ > . , — ‘ ' ' 

: vin TIT E oe SS eae oes 3 

| — TEE SE 



Be OMe | 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2006 with funding from 
Microsoft Corporation 


— - —— 















AUG! 1 1949 


First Edition 1895. Second Edition 1898 
Third Edition 1902. Fourth Edition 1907 
Rebrinted 1911, 1917, 1920, 1922 

Printed in Great Britain by R, & R. CLARK, LIMITED, Edinburgh. 


Tue following Text and Translation of the Poetics 
form part of the volume entitled Aristotle's Theory 
of Poetry and Fine Art, second edition (Macmillan 
and Co., 1898). In this edition the Critical Notes 
are enlarged, and the Translation has been care- 
fully revised. The improvements in the Translation 
are largely due to the invaluable aid I have received 
from my friend and colleague, Professor W. R. 
Hardie. To him I would express my warmest 
thanks, and also to another friend, Professor 
Tyrrell, who has most kindly read through the 
proof - sheets, ‘and talked over and elucidated 
various questions of interpretation and criticism. 
In making use of the mass of critical material 
which has appeared in recent years, especially in 
Germany, I have found it necessary to observe a 
strict principle of selection, my aim still being 
to keep the notes within limited compass. They 
are not intended to form a complete Apparatus 
Criticus, still less to do duty for a commentary. 

I trust, however, that no variant or conjectural 


emendation of much importance has been over- 
looked. | 

In the first edition I admitted into the text 
conjectural emendations of my own in the following 
passages :—iii. 3: xix. 3: xxi. 1: xxiv. 10: 
xxv. 4: xxv. 14: xxv. 16. Of these, one or two 
appear to have carried general conviction (in 
particular, xxiii. 1): two are now withdrawn,— 
ili. 8 and xxv. 14, the latter in favour of <olovoty> 

In the first edition, moreover, I bracketed, in 
a certain number of passages, words which I[ 
regarded as glosses that had crept into the text, 
viz. :—il. 1: vi. 18: xvu.1: xvu. 5. In vi. 18 
I now give Gomperz’s correction tév Aeyouévwr, for 
the bracketed words rév pév Aoyov of the MSS., 
and in xvi. 5 Bywater’s conjecture é7v adrés for 
[ruvas avros |, 

There remains a conjecture which I previously 
relegated to the notes, but which I now 
take into the text with some confidence. It 
has had the good fortune to win the approval of 
many scholars, including the distinguished names 
of Professor Susemihl and Professor Tyrrell. I 
refer to ov (otra MSS.) 7d rvydvra évdpara in 
ix. 5. 1451 b 18, where the Arabic has ‘names 
not given at random.’ For the copyist’s error 
ef. ix. 2. 1451 a 36, where A° has otra, though 
ov ro rightly appears in the ‘apographa’: and for 


a similar omission of od in A° cf. vi. 12. 1450 a 29, 
od troujcer 5 iv Ths Tpayedias Epyov, the indispensable 
negative being added in ‘apographa’ and found 
in the Arabic. The emendation not only gives a 
natural instead of a strained sense to the words 

Ta tuxévTa dvopara, but also fits in better with 

the general context, as I have argued in Aristotle's 
Theory of Poetry, ete. (ed. 3 pp. 375-8). 

Another conjecture of my own I have ventured 
to admit into the text. In the much disputed 
passage, vi. 8. 1450 a 12,1 read <sdvtes> as eireiv 
for ov« édrtyou aitav ws eizeiy of the MSS., follow- 
ing the guidance of Diels and of the Arabic. I 
regard ovx ddtyou adtav as a gloss which displaced 
part of the original phrase (see Critical Notes). As 
a parallel case I have adduced /thet. i. 1. 1354 a 
12, where ovdev as ciety, the reading in the 
margin of A’, ought, I think, to be substituted in 
the text for the accepted reading ddiyov. The 
word éAéyov is a natural gloss on oddév as eizeip, 
but not so oddéy as eimety On dXLyor. 

In two other difficult passages the Rhetoric 
may again be summoned to our aid. In xvii. 1. 
1455 a 27 I have (as in the first edition) bracketed 
tov Oeatrv, the object to be supplied with érdvOavey 
being, as I take it, the poet, not the audience.. 
This I have now illustrated by another gloss of 
a precisely similar kind in het. i. 2. 1358 a 8, 
where AavPdvoveiv te | Tods axpoatas| has long been 


recognised as the true reading, the suppressed 
object being not the audience but the rhetoricians. 
Once more, in xxiv. 9. 1460 a 23, where A° 
gives the meaningless dAdov 8é, I read (as in the 
first edition) dar’ od8é, following the reviser of A’. 
This reading, which was accepted long ago by 
Vettori, has been strangely set aside by the chief 
modern editors, who either adopt a variant dAdo 
dé or resort to conjecture, with the result that 
mpoobeivat at the end of the sentence is forced into 
impossible meanings. A passage in the Rhetoric, 
i, 2. 1357 a 17 ff., appears to me to determine the 
question conclusively in favour of dad’ ose . 
avaykn ... wpocbeivax. The passage runs thus: 
cay yap 4 Te TOUT@Y yvepimov, ovde Set éyeLV: adTds 
yap todto mpootiOnow o axpoatys, olov srt Awpieds 
arepavitny ayava vevixnker, ixavov eimeiv Ste ’OdXMutria 
yap vevixncev, Td 8° Stu otehavitns ta Orddpria, ovdé 
Se? rpocbetvas: yuyveoKovas yap wavres. The general 
idea is closely parallel to our passage of the Poetics, 
and the expression of it is similar, even the word 
ovdé (where the bare od might have been expected) 
in the duplicated phrase od Se? réyew, ob88 Sef 
mpocOeivat. One difficulty still remains. The sub- 
ject to elvac 7) yevéoOas is omitted. To supply it 
in thought is not, perhaps, impossible, but it is 
exceedingly harsh, and I have accordingly in this 
edition accepted Professor Tucker's conjecture, 

by / > nan => Et / 
avayKkn <Kakelvo> eivat } yevérOat. 


The two conjectures of my own above mentioned 
are based on or corroborated by the Arabic. I 
ought to add, that in the Text and Critical Notes 
generally I have made a freer use than before of 
the Arabic version (concerning which see p. 4). 
But it must be remembered that only detached 
passages, literally rendered into Latin in Professor 
Margoliouth’s Analecta Orientalia (D. Nutt, 1887), 
are as yet accessible to those like myself who are 
not Arabic scholars; and that even if the whole 
were before us in a literal translation, it could not 
‘safely be used by any one unfamiliar with Syriac 
and Arabic save with the utmost caution and 
subject to the advice of experts. Of the precise 
value of this version for the criticism of the 
text, no final estimate can yet be made. But it 
seems clear that in several passages it carries us 
back to a Greek original earlier than any of our 
existing MSS. ‘Two striking instances may here 
be noted :-— 

(1) i. 6-7. 1447 a 29 ff, where the Arabic 
confirms Ueberweg’s excision of ézorowa and the 
insertion of dvdvupos before tuyydvovca, accord- 
ing to the brilliant conjecture of Bernays (see 
Margoliouth, Analecta Orientalia, p. 47). 

(2) xxi. 1. 1457 a 36, where for peyadiwrdv of 
the MSS. Diels has, by the aid of the Arabic, 
restored the word MaccaNorav, and added a most 
ingenious and convincing explanation of “Eppoxai- 


xo£avOos (see Critical Notes). This emendation 
is introduced for the first time into the present 
edition. Professor Margoliouth tells me that 
Diels’ restoration of érevEduevos in this passage is 
confirmed by the fact that the same word is 
employed in the Arabic of Aristotle’s Rhetoric 
to render edyeo@au. 

Another result of great importance has been 
established. In some fifty instances where the 
Arabic points to a Greek original diverging from 
the text of A°, it confirms the reading found in 
one or other of the ‘apographa,’ or conjectures 
made either at the time of the Renaissance or in 
a more recent period. It would be too long to 
enumerate the passages here; they will be found 
noted as they occur. In most of these examples 
the reading attested by the Arabic commands our 
undoubting assent. It is, therefore, no longer 
possible to concede to A® the unique authority 
claimed for it by Vahlen. 

I have consulted by the side of Professor 
Margoliouth’s book various criticisms of it, e.g. by 
Susemihl in Berl. Phil. Wochenschr. 1891, p. 1546, 
and by Diels in Sitewngsber. der Berl. Akad. 
1888, p. 49. But I have also enjoyed the special 
benefit of private communication with Professor 
Margoliouth himself upon a number of difficulties 
not dealt with in his Analecta Orientalia. He has 
most generously put his learning at my disposal, 


and furnished me, where it was possible to do so, 
with a literal translation. In some instances the 
Arabic is itself obscure and throws no light on 
the difficulty ; frequently, however, I have been 
enabled to indicate in the notes whether the exist- 
ing text is supported by the Arabic or not. 

In the following passages I have in this edition 
adopted emendations which are suggested or con- 
firmed by the Arabic, but which did not find a 
place in the first edition :— 

ii. 3. 1448 a 15, dovwep of tovs? 

vi. 7. 1450 a 17, <6 Se Bios>, omitting kai eddaipovias 
kal 7 evdarpovia of the MSS. 

xi. 6. 1452 b 10, [rovrwy Se. . . eipyrar] 
xvill. 6. 1456 a 24, <xal> eixds? 
xx. 5. 1456 b 35, <ovn> dvev? 

xxi. 1. 1457 a 34, [kal dojpov]. The literal trans- 
lation of the Arabic is ‘and of this some is 
compounded of significant and _ insignificant, 
only not in so far as it is significant in the 

xxl. 1. 1457 a 36, MacoadAwrtdév (see above, p. ix.) 
xxv. 17. 1461 b 12, <xat iows ddvvarov> 

I hesitate to add to this list of corroborated 
conjectures that of Dacier, now admitted into the 
text of xxii. 1. 1459 a 21, cat pr) opolas icropias 

tas ovvOéces, for Kal pr opotas ictopias Tas cvvibes 

1 Ined. 3 I simply give the MSS. reading in the text, doep 
2 In ed. 3 the words here added are omitted in the text. 


of the MSS. The Arabic, as I learn from Professor 

Margoliouth, is literally ‘and in so far as he does 
not introduce (or, there do not enter) into these 
compositions stories which resemble.’ This version 
appears to deviate both from our text and from 
Dacier’s conjecture. There is nothing here to 
correspond to cvv7Ges of the MSS. ; on the other 
hand, though cuvéécexs may in some form have 
appeared in the Greek original, it is not easy to 
reconstruct the text which the translation implies. 
Another conjecture, communicated privately to 
me by Mr. T. M‘Vey, well deserves mention. It 
involves the simpler change of opotas to ofas. The 
sense then is, ‘and must not be like the ordinary 
histories’; the demonstr. rovodrovs being sunk in 
otas, so that ofa icropiar ai cuvnbers becomes by 
attraction, olas icropias ras cuvnbes. 

I subjoin a few other notes derived from corre- 
spondence with Professor Margoliouth :-— 

(a) Passages where the Arabic confirms the 
reading of the MSS. as against proposed emenda- 
tion :— 

iv. 14.1449 a 27, éxBaivovres ths A|exTiKHS appovias: 
Arabic, ‘when we depart from dialectic com- 

position.’ (The meaning, however, is obviously 

vi. 18. 1450 b 13, trav pév Adywv: Arabic, ‘of the 
speech.’ The pév is not represented, but, owing 
to the Syriac form of that particle being identical 
with the Syriac for the preposition ‘of,’ it was 


likely to be omitted here by the translator or 

xviii. 1. 1455 b 25. The Arabic agrees with the 
MSS. as to the position of roAAdxis, ‘as for 
things which are from without and certain things 
from within sometimes.’ 

xviii. 5. 1456 a 19, xai év rots darAots rpdypacr: Arabic, 
‘and in the simple matters.’ 

xix. 2. 1456 a 38, 7a rd0n rapackevdfew: Arabie, 
‘to prepare the sufferings.’ 

More doubtful is xvii. 2. 1455 a 30, do tis adrijs 
dicews: Arabic, ‘in one and the same nature.’ 
The Arabic mode of translation is not decisive as 
between the MSS. reading and the conjecture az’ 
avtns Ths dvaews, but rather favours the former. 
(b) Passages where the conjectural omission of 
words is apparently supported by the Arabic :— 

ix. 9. 1451 b 31, ofa dy eixds yevéer Oat kal Svvard yevée 
oOar: Arabic, ‘there is nothing to prevent the 
condition of some things being therein like those 
which are supposed to be.’ But we can hardly 
say with certainty which of the two phrases the 
Arabic represents. 

xvi. 4. 1454 b 31, ofov "Opéorns ev ry ‘Idcyeveia 
dveyvipurev Ott Opeorns: Arabic, ‘as in that 
which is called Iphigenia, and that is whereby 
Iphigenia argued that it was Orestes.’ This 
seems to point to the omission of the first 

1 Vahlen (Hermeneutische Bemerkungen zw Aristoteles’ Poetik ii. 
1898, pp. 3-4) maintains that the inference drawn from the Arabic 
is doubtful, and he adds strong objections on other grounds to Diels’ 
excision of the first "Opeorns. 



In neither of these passages, however, have I 
altered the MSS. reading. 
(c) Passages on which the Arabic throws no 
light -— 
i. 9. 1447 b 22. The only point of interest that 
emerges is that in the Arabic rendering (‘of all 
the metres we ought to call him poet’) there is 

no trace of xai, which is found alike in A° and 
the ‘ apographa.’ 

x. 3. 1452 a 20. The words yiyveoOa: ratra are 
simply omitted in the Arabic. 

xxv. 18. 1461 b 18, gore kai airdiv MSS. The line 
containing these words is not represented in the 

xxv. 19. 1461 b 19, drav pi) dvayKns obons pydev. . . 
The words in the Arabic are partly obliterated, 
partly corrupt. 

In conclusion, I desire to acknowledge my 
obligations to friends, such as Mr. B. Bosanquet 
(whose History of Aesthetic ought to be in the hands 
of all students of the subject), Dr. A. W. Verrall, 
Mr. W. J. Courthope, Mr. A. O. Prickard, and Rev. 
Dr. Lock, who have written me notes on particular 
points, and to many reviewers by whose criticism I 
have profited. In a special sense I am indebted to 
Professor Susemihl for his review of my first edition 
in the Berl. Phil. Wochenschr., 28th September 
1895, as well as for the instruction derived from his 
numerous articles on the Poetics, extending over 
many years in Bursian’s Jahresbericht and else- 


where. Among other reviewers to whom I feel 
grateful, I would mention Mr. Herbert Richards 
in the Classical Review, May 1895; Mr. R. P. 
Hardie in Mind, vol. iv. No. 15; and the authors 
of the unsigned articles in the Saturday Review, 
2nd March 1895, and the Oxford Magazine, 12th 
June 1895. 

To Messrs. R. & R. Clark’s Reader I would once 

again express no merely formal thanks. 

EDINBURGH, November 1897. 


In the revision of the Text and the Critical Notes 
I have had the advantage of consulting two new 
editions, based on very different principles, those of 
Professor Bywater and Professor Tucker, from both 
of which I have derived assistance. In Professor 
Bywater’s edition I have noted the following passages 
in which manuscript authority (Parisinus 2038) is 
cited for readings which hitherto have been given 
as conjectural :—i. 4. 1447 a 21; xi. 5. 1452 b 3 
and 4; xv. 1. 1454 a 19; xviii. 1. 1455 b 32; 
xxii. 7. 1458 b 20 and 29; xxiv. 8. 1460 a 13; 
xxv. 4. 1460 b 19; xxv. 16. 1461 b 3 and 17. 
1461 b 18; xxvi. 3. 1462 a 5; xxvi. 6. 1462 b 6. 
I am also indebted to Professor Bywater’s text 
for several improvements in punctuation. Most 
of his important emendations had appeared before 
the publication of my earlier editions, and had 
already found a place in the text or in the 
notes, y 
I now append the chief passages in which the 



text of this edition differs from that of the 

last :-— 

vii. 6. 1451 a 9. Here I keep the reading of the 

MSS., dowep tore cat dAAoré haciv. Schmidt's 
correction <id@acw for daciv seemed at first 
sight to be confirmed by the Arabic, but, as 
Vahlen argues (Hermeneutische Bemerkungen zu 
Aristoteles’ Poetik, 1897), this is doubtful, and 
—a more fundamental objection—the question 
arises whether the correction can, after all, con- 
vey the sense intended. Can the words as 
emended refer to a known practice in present 
time, ‘as is the custom on certain other occasions 
also,’ i.e. in certain other contests, the dydves of 
the law-courts being thus suggested? As to 
this I have always had misgivings. Further 
observation has convinced me that woré kai aXAore 
can only mean ‘at some other time also,’ 
in an indefinite past or future. With ¢aciv 
(sc. dywvicacGar) the reference must be to the 
past. This lands us in a serious difficulty, for 
the use of the xAeWidpa in regulating dramatic 
representations is otherwise unheard of. Still 
it is conceivable that a report of some such 
old local custom had reached the ears of Aristotle, 
and that he introduces it in a parenthesis with 
the daciv of mere hearsay. 

ix. 7. 1451 b 21. I accept Welcker’s “AvOe? for 


avOe. Professor Bywater is, I think, the first 
editor who has admitted this conjecture into 
the text. 

5. 1455 b 22. I restore the MSS. reading 
tivayvepioas tuvds, which has been given up by 
almost all editors, even the most conservative. 
Hitherto a parallel was wanting for the required 


meaning, ‘having made certain persons acquainted 
with him,’ ‘having caused them to recognise 
him.’ But Vahlen (Herm. Bemerk. 1898) has, 
if I am not mistaken, established beyond question 
this rare and idiomatic use of the verb by a 
reference to Diodorus Siculus iv. 59. 6, and by 
the corresponding use of yvwpifw in Plut. Vit. 
Thes. ch. xii. 

xix. 3.1456 b 8. For 1déa of the MSS. I now read 
» Sudvoww. (Previously I had accepted Tyrwhitt’s 
correction 76y @ de.) This conjecture was first 
made by Spengel, and strong arguments in its 
favour have recently been urged by V. Wrobel 
in a pamphlet in which this passage is discussed 
(Leopoli, 1900). 

xxv. 6.1458 b 12. For pérpov I now read pérpuov 
with Spengel. (So also Bywater.) Is it possible 
that in xxvi. 6. 1462 b 7 we should similarly 
read tw Tod petplov (uérpov codd.) prjcer, ‘a fair 
standard of length’? 

In xiv. 8-9. 1454 a 2-4 a much vexed question 
is, | am disposed to think, cleared up by a simple 
alteration proposed by Neidhardt, who in a 2 reads 
kpatiorov for Sdevrepov, and in a 4 Sevrepov for 
xpatictov. ‘This change, however, I have not intro- 
duced into the text. 

The Arabic version once more throws interesting 
light on a disputed reading. In xvii. 2 éxotarixot 
instead of é£eracrixoi 18 a conjecture supported. by 
one manuscript. In confirmation of this reading, 
which has always seemed to me correct, I extract 
the following note by Professor Margoliouth (Class, 


fev. 1901, vol. xv. 54) :—‘ Professor Butcher . . . 
informed me that a continental scholar had asserted 
that the Arabic read exoTatiKol for é&eracrixoi in 
this passage. I had been unable to satisfy myself 
about the Arabic word intended by the writer of 
the Paris MS8., and therefore could not confirm 
this; but I must regret my want of perspicacity, 
for I have now no doubt that the word intended is 
_‘ajabiyyina, which is vulgar Arabic for “ buffoons,” 
literally ‘‘men of wonder.” The Syriac translated 
by this word will almost certainly have been 
mathh’rdné, a literal translation of éxorarixoi, 
which the Syriac translator probably thought 
meant ‘‘men who produce ecstasies.” The verb 
éficracbas is not unfrequently rendered by the 
Syriac verb whence this word is derived.’ 

In a few other passages the Critical Notes or 
Translation contain new matter; e.g. ix. 8. 1451 
b 23; xvi 7. 1455 a 14; xxiv. 10. 1460 b 1; 
xxvl. 6. 1462 b 7. 

I cannot in concluding omit a word of cordial 
thanks to Messrs. R. & R. Clark’s accomplished 

EDINBURGH, October 1902. 


Tuis edition differs but little from the last, the 
only two changes of any importance being in the 
interpretation of {ov (ch. vii. 4-5, xxiii. 1), see 
Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, ed. 4, 
p- 188, and of zepuréreva, ib. pp. 329-331. On 
particular points, including bibliographical matter, 
I have received kind assistance from Dr. J. EH. 
Sandys. I desire also to express once more my 

obligations to Messrs. R. & R. Clark’s Reader. 

LonpDon, January 1907. 






TEXT anp TRANSLATION of THE Poetics . 



Tue following is a list of the chief editions and translations of the Poetics, 
and of other writings relating to this treatise, arranged in chronological 
order :— 

Valla (G.), Latin translation. Venice, 1498. 
Aldine text, in Rhetores Graeci. Venice, Aldus, 1508. 

Latin translation, with the summary of Averroes (ob. 1198). - Venice, 
Arrivabene, 1515. 

Pazzi (A.) [Paccius], Aristotelis Poetica, per Alexandrum Paccium, patri- 
tium Florentinum, in Latinum conversa, Venice, Aldus, 1536. 

Trincaveli, Greek text. Venice, 1536. 

Robortelli (Fr.), Jn librum Aristotelis de Arte Poctica ecxplicationes. 
Florence, 1548. 

Segni (B.), Rettorica e Poetica d’ Aristotele tradotte di Greco in lingua 
wulgare. Florence, 1549. 

Maggi (V.) [Madius], Jn Aristotelis librum de Poetica explanationes, 
Venice, 1550. 

Vettori (P.) [ Victorius], Commentationes in primum librum Aristotelis de 
Arte Poetarum. Florence, 1560. 

Castelvetro (L.), Poetica d’ Aristotele vulgarizzeata. Vienna, 1570; Basle, 

Piccolomini (A.), Annotationi nel libro della Poetica d’ Aristotele, con la 
traduttione del medesimo libro in lingua volgare. Venice, 1575. 

Casaubon (I.), edition of Aristotle. Leyden, 1590. 

Heinsius (D.) recensuit. Leyden, 1610. 

Goulston (T.), Latin translation. London, 1623, and Cambridge, 1696. 

Dacier, La Poétique traduite en Frangais, avec des remarques critiques. 
Paris, 1692. 

Batteux, Les quatres Poétiques d’Aristote, d’Horace, de Vida, de Des- 
préaux, avec les traductions et des remarques par l Abbé Batteux. 
Paris, 1771. 



Winstanley (T.), commentary on Poetics. Oxford, 1780. 
Reiz, De Poctica Liber. Leipzig, 1786. 

Metastasio (P.), Zstratto dell’ Arte Poetica d’ Aristotele e considerazioni su 
la medesima. Paris, 1782. 

Twining (T.), Aristotle’s Treatise on Poetry, Translated : with notes on the 
Translation, and on the original ; and two Dissertations on Poetical 
and Musical Imitation. London, 1789. 

Pye (H. J.), 4 Commentary illustrating the Poetic of Aristotle by examples 
taken chiefly from the modern poets. To which is prefixed a new and 
corrected edition of the translation of the Poetic, London, 1792. 

Tyrwhitt (T.), De Poetica Liber. Textwm recenswit, versionem refinxit, et 
animadversionibus illustravit Thomas Tyrwhitt. (Posthumously 
published.) Oxford, 1794. 

Buhle (J. T.), De Poetica Liber. Gottingen, 1794. 

Hermann (Godfrey), Ars Poetica cwm commentariis. Leipzig, 1802. 

Graifenham (E. A. W.), De Arte Poetica librum denuo recensuit, convmen- 
tartis tllustravit, etc. Leipzig, 1821. 

Raumer (Fr. v.), Ueber die Poetik des Aristotles und sein Verhiltniss zu 
den neuern Dramatikern Berlin, 1829. 

Spengel (L.), Ueber Aristoteles Poetik in Abhandlungen der Miinchener 
Akad. philos.-philol. Cl. II. Munich, 1837. 

Ritter (Fr.), Ad codices antiquos recognitam, latine conversam, com- 
mentario illustratam edidit Franciscus Ritter. Cologne, 1839. 

Weil (H.), Ueber die Wirkung der Tragoedie nach Aristoteles, Verhand- 
lungen deutscher Philologen x. p. 1381. Basel, 1848. 

Egger (M. E.), Essai sur Vhistoire de la Critique chez les Grecs, suivi de 
la Poétique d’ Aristote et d’extraits de ses Probléemes, avec traduction 
Francaise et commentaire. Paris, 1849. 

Bernays (Jacob), Grundziige der verlorenen Abhandlung des Aristoteles 
iiber Wirkung der Tragidie. Breslau, 1857. 

Saint-Hilaire (J. B.), Poétique traduite en francais et accompagnée de notes 
perpétuelles. Paris, 1858. 

Stahr (Adolf), Aristoteles und die Wirkung der Tragédie. Berlin, 1859. 

Stahr (Adolf), German translation, with Introduction and notes. Stutt- 
gart, 1860. 

Liepert (J.), Azistoteles iiber den Zweck der Kunst. Passau, 1862. 

Susemihl (F.), Avistoteles Ueber die Dichtkunst, Griechisch und Deutsch 
und mit sacherklérenden Anmerkungen. Leipzig, 1865 and 1874. 

Vahlen (J.), Bettrdge zu Aristoteles’ Poetik. Vienna, 1865. 
Spengel (L.), Aristotelische Studien IV. Munich, 1866. 
Vahlen (J.), Aristotelis de Arte Poetica Liber: recensuit. Berlin, 1867. 


Teichmiiller (G.), Aristotelische Forschungen. 1. Beitrdge zur Erklirung 
der Poetik des Aristoteles. II. Aristoteles’ Philosophie der Kunst. 
Halle, 1869. 

Ueberweg (F.), German translation and notes. Berlin, 1869. 

Reinkens (J. H.), <Aristoteles iiber Kumst, besonders iiber Tragédie. 
Vienna, 1870, 

Doring (A.), Die Kunstlehre des Aristoteles. Jena, 1870. 

Ueberweg (F.), Aristotelis Ars Poetica ad fidem potissimum codicis anti- 
quissimi A° (Parisiensis 1741). Berlin, 1870. 

Bywater (I.), Aristotelia in Jowrnal of Philology, v. 117 ff. and xiv. 40 ff. 
London and Cambridge, 1873 and 1885. 

Vahlen (J.), Aristotelis de Arte Poetica Liber: iterwm recenswit et adnota- 
tione critica auait. Berlin, 1874. 

Moore (E.), Vahlen’s text with notes. Oxford, 1875. 

Christ (W.) recensuit. Leipzig, 1878 and 1893. 

Bernays (Jacob), Zwet Abhandlungen iiber die Aristotelische Theorie des 
Drama. Berlin, 1880. 

Brandscheid (F.), Text, German translation, critical notes and com- 
mentary. Wiesbaden, 1882. 

Wharton (E. R.), Vahlen’s text with English translation. Oxford, 1883. 

Vahlen (J.), Aristotelis de Arte Poetica Liber: tertiis curis recognovit et 
adnotatione critica auxit. Leipzig, 1885. 

Margoliouth (D.), Analecta Orientalia ad Poeticam Aristoteleam. Lon- 
don, 1887, 

Bénard (C.), L’ Esthétique d’ Aristote. Paris, 1887. 

Gomperz (T.), Zu Aristoteles’ Poetik, I. (c. i-vi.). Vienna, 1888. 

Heidenhain (F.), Averrois Paraphrasis in librum Poeticae Aristotelis Jacob 
Mantino interprete. Leipzig, 1889. 

Prickard (A. 0.), Aristotle on the Art of Poetry. A Lectwre with two 
Appendices. London, 1891. 

La Pottique d Aristote, Manuscrit 1741 Fonds Grec de la Bibliotheque 
Nationale. Préface de M. Henri Omont. Photolithographie de 
MM. Lumiére. Paris, 1891. 

Carroll (M.), Aristotle's Poetics c. xxv. in the Light of the Homeric 
Scholia. Baltimore, 1895. 

Gomperz (T.), <Aristoteles’ Poetik. Uebersetzt und eingeleitet. Leipzig 

Gomperz (T.), Zw Aristoteles’ Poetik, II., III. Vienna, 1896. 

Bywater (I.), Avistotelis de Arte Poetica Liber. Oxford, 1897. 

Vahlen (J.), Hermeneutische Bemerkungen zu Aristoteles’ Poctik : Sitzungs- 
berichte der K. preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 
Berlin, 1897 xxix, 1898 xxi. 


Spingarn (J. E.), A History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 
New York, 1899. 
Tucker (T. G.), Aristotelis Poetica. London, 1899. 

Saintsbury (G.), 4 History of Criticism, Vol. I. Edinburgh and London, 
1900. : 

Finsler (G.), Platon und die Aristotelische Poctik. Leipzig, 1900. 

Courthope (W. J.), Life in Poetry: Law in Taste. London, 1901. 

Bywater (I.), On certain technical terms in Aristotle’s Poetics, Festschrift 
Theodor Gomperz dargebracht zum siebzigsten Geburtstage. Wien, 
1902, pp. 164 ff. 

Tkat (J.), Ueber den arabischer Kommentar des Averroes zur Poetik des 
Aristoteles, Wiener Studien, xxiv. p. 70, 1902. 

Carroll (Mitchell), Aristotle's Aesthetics of Painting and Sculpture. Geo, 
Washington University, 1905. 

Knoke (F.), Begriff der Tragidie nach Aristoteles. Berlin, 1906. 

~ IV. 

|“ =~ The successive steps in the history of Tragedy are enumer- 



. ‘Imitation’ (ulunos) the common principle of the Arts of Poetry, 

Music, Dancing, Painting, and Sculpture. These Arts dis- 
tinguished according to the Medium or material Vehicle, the 
Objects, and the Manner of Imitation. The Medium of 
Imitation is Rhythm, Language, and ‘Harmony’ (or Meledy), 
taken singly or combined. 

. The Objects of Imitation. 

Higher or lower. types are represented in all the Imitative 

Arts. In Poetry this is the basis of the distinction between - 

Tragedy and Comedy. 

. The Manner of Imitation. 

Poetry may be in form either dramatic narrative, pure 
narrative (including lyric poetry), or pure drama. A 
digression follows on the name and original home of the 

The Origin and Development of Poetry. 

Psychologically, Poetry may be traced to two causes, the 
instinct of Imitation, and the instinct of ‘Harmony’ and 

Historically viewed, Poetry diverged early in two directions: 
traces of this twofold tendency are found in the Homeric poems: 

’ Tragedy and Comedy exhibit the distinction in a 1 developed 


_ Ve Definition of the udicrous (rd yeXotov), and a brief sketch of the 
Points of comparison between Epic Poetry 

rise of Comedy 
and Tragedy.. (The chapter is fragmentary.) 
1 B 

ee... noha = 



+ VI. Definition of Tragedy. . Six elements in Tragedy : three external, 
—namely, Spectacular Presentment (6 rs bWews xdcpos or Syis), 
J Lyrical Song (ueXorola), Diction (Aéés); three internal,— 
namely, Plot (ui@es), Character (#@0s), and Thought (didvom), 
Plot, or the represehtation of the action, is of primary import- 

_ance ; Character and Thought come next in order. 

igeae™ ~ Vu. The Plot must be a Whole, complete in itself, and of adequate 
A magnitude. 

VIII. The Plot must be a Unity. Unity of Plot consists not in Unity 
Te of Hero, but in Unity of Action. 
The parts must be organically connected. 

™ = IX. (Plot continued.) Dramatic Unity can be attained only by the 

observance of Poetic as distinct from Historic Truth ; for 

Poetry is an expression of the Universal, History of the Par- 

ticular. The rule of probable or necessary sequence as applied 

to the incidents.__Certain_ plots condemned for want of Unity. 

R| The best Tragic effects depend on the combination of the & 
Inevitable and the Unexpected. 

~ (X. \Plot continued.) Definitions of Simple (dm)oz) and Complex 
(remdeypuévor) Plots. 

~~ XI. (Plot continued.) Reversal of the Situation (aepméreca), Recog- 
4 nition (dvayvwmpors), and Tragic or disastrous Incident (dos) , 
defined and explained, 

“ XIL The ‘quantitative, parts’ (uépn xara 7d moobv) of Tragedy de- 
fined :—Prologue, Episode, etc. (Probably an interpolation.) — 

~ Xili: (Plot continued.) What constitutes Tragic Action. The 
hee / change of fortune and the character of the hero as requisite 
\A-—s to an ideal Tragedy. The unhappy ending more truly tragic 
than the ‘poetic justice’ which is in favour with a popular 

audience, and belongs rather to Comedy. 

XIV. (Plot continued. ) The tragic emations of pity and fear should ° 

V/ Spectacular effect is antvely against the spirit of Tragedy. 
Examples of Tragic Incidents designed to heighten the 
emotional effect. 

_ SSXV. The element of Character (as the manifestation of moral purpose) 
‘eh in Tragedy. Requisites of ethical portraiture. The rule of 

if necessity_or probability applicable to Character as to Plot, 

The ‘Deus ex Machina’ (a passage out of place here). How 
Character is idealised. 

“—_ XVI. (Plot continued.) Recognition : its various kinds, with examples. 

XVII. Practical rules for the Tragic Poet : 
A (1) To place the scene before his eyes, and to act the 





parts himself in order to enter into vivid ey with the 
dramatis personae, — pPCessr- eit, mee. f~ pp 
(2) To sketch the bare outline of the action ‘ebocs proceed- 
ing to fill in the episodes. 
The Episodes of Tragedy are here incidentally contrasted 
with those of Epic Poetry. Sha Jans T—~ . 

Further rules for the Tragic Poet: 
(1) To be careful about the Complication (déo1s) and Deé- 
nouement (bots) of the Plot, especially the Dénouement. ~ 

(2) To unite, if possible, varied forms of poetic excellence. ~ 

(3) Not to overcharge a Tragedy with details appropriate 
to Epic Poetry. 

(4) To make the Choral Odes—like the Dialogue—an organic 
part of the whole. 

Thought (éd:dvoa), or the Intellectual element, and Diction in 
Thought is revealed in the dramatic speeches composed 
according to the rules of Rhetoric. 
Diction falls largely within the domain of the Art of 
Delivery, rather than of Poetry. 

. Diction, or Language in general. An analysis of the parts of 

speech, and other grammatical details. (Probably interpolated.) 

Poetic Diction. The words and modes of speech admissible 
in Poetry: including Metaphor, in particular. 

A passage—probably interpolated—on the Gender of Nouns. 

. (Poetic Diction continued.) How Poetry combines elevation of 

language with perspicuity. 

. Epic Poetry. It agrees with Tragedy in Unity of Action: herein 

contrasted with History. 

. (Epic Poetry continued.) Further points of agreement with 

Tragedy. The points of difference are enumerated and illus- 
trated,—namely, (1) the length of the poem; (2) the metre ; 
(3) the art of imparting a plausible air to incredible fiction. 

. Critical Objections brought against Poetry, and the principles on 

which they are to be answered. In particular, an elucidation 
of the meaning of Poetic Truth, and its difference from common 

. A general estimate of the comparative worth of Epic Poetry and 

Tragedy. The alleged defects of Tragedy are not essential to it. 
Its positive merits entitle it to the higher rank of the two. 



en te 

Dox bho 




apogr. = 
Arabs = 


Ald. = 

Vahlen == 

Vahlen coni. = 

Oe ha 
a % 

the Parisian manuscript (1741) of the 11th 
century: generally, but perhaps too con- 
fidently, supposed to be the archetype from 
which all other extant MSS. directly or in- 
directly are derived. 

one or more of the MSS. other than A°. 

the Arabic version of the Poetics (Paris 882 A), 
of the middle of the 10th century, a version 
independent of our extant MSS. It is not 
directly taken from the Greek, but is a trans- 
lation of a Syriac version of the Poetics by an 
unknown author, now lost. (The quotations 
in the critical notes are from the literal Latin 
translation of the Arabic, as given in Mar- 
goliouth’s Analecta Orientalia.) 

the Greek manuscript, far older than A° and no 
longer extant, which was used by the Syriac - 
translator. (This symbol already employed 
by Susemihl I have taken for the sake of 
brevity.) It must be remembered, therefore, 
that the readings ascribed to 2 are those which 
we infer to have existed in the Greek exemplar, 
from which the Syriac translation was made. 

the Aldine edition of Ihetores Graect, published 
in 1508. 

Vahlen’s text of the Poetics Ed. 3. 

a conjecture of Vahlen, not admitted by him into 
the text. 

words with manuscript authority (including A°), 
which should be deleted from the text. 

a conjectural supplement to the text. 
a lacuna in the text. 

words which are corrupt and have not been satis- 
factorily restored. 


I Ilepi trowntuxhs avris te kal tdv ciddv adits hv twa 
1447 Sg of yj \ a a , \ / 
vvapuv Exactov eye, Kal TS Set cuvictacbat Tors mUOouS 

> lé n 
10 €l péANer KaADS Few 1) Toinow, ére Se ex ToTwy Kal 
Z , € , aA A 
mciov éott poplwv, ouolws oé Kal jept Tov aAXN@V boa TIS 
> A > / / > / AN / an 
avThns €or weOodov, Aéywpev apEdwevor xata diow Tpo- 
> \ a] / b] / \ \ id A / 
TOV aTo TOV TpwTwV. érroTrotia 5) Kal 4 THs Tpay@dias 2 
/ \ an 
moinows éTt dé Kaumdia kal » SiOvpayBorointixn Kal THs 
9) 9 
\ 4 / 
ovoat mipnoes TO cbvoroY, Siaépovat Sé AdAHA@V Tpicir, 8 
x \ PR) OS Le a x a 7 x a eee A 
) yap To év Erépors puipeicOar TO ETepa 1 TO Eré- 
\ \ / 
pos Kal pn Toy adToy TpoToy. WaTep yap Kal yp@pacr 4 
4 / 
kal oynpact Tod\Aa pupovvtal Tives ameKdfovTes (01 ev 
‘ / n n 
20 dia Téyvns of Sé Sia ouvnbeias), Erepor Sé dia THs paovijs, 
oiTw Kav Tals eipnwévais Téyvatss Amacat pev ToLvovvyTat 
\ , ? e 6 a \ t A ae / / s 
Thy pipnow év pvdud Kal oy@ Kal appovia, TovToLS 

) xwplis 7) pepwiypévors+ olov dppovia pév Kal pvlue ypo- 

12. \éywuev apogr.: Aéyouevy AC: (habuit iam = var. lect., ‘et dicamus et 

dicimus’ Arabs) 17. é€v Forchhammer (‘imitatur rebus_ diversis’ 
Arabs): yéver A& 20. rijs pwvjs codd. (‘per sonos’ Arabs): ris dicews 
Maggi: avrijs ris picews Spengel 21. xdv Parisinus 2038, Ald. : 

kal év apogr. alia: cal A¢ 


I I propose to treat of Poetry in itself and of its various 

MAT dinds, noting the essential quality of each; to inquire into 
the structure of the plot as requisite to a good poem; 
into the number and nature of the parts of which a 
poem is composed ; and similarly into whatever else falls 
within the same inquiry. Following, then, the order of. . 
nature, let us begin with the principles which come 

Epic poetry and Tragedy, Comedy also and Dithyrambic 2 
poetry, and the music of the flute and of the lyre in 
most of their forms, are all in their general conception 
modes of imitation. They differ, however, from ones 
another in three respects——the medium, the objects, the 
manner or mode of imitation, being in each case 

For as there are persons who, by conscious art or 4 
‘mere habit, imitate and represent various objects through 
the medium of colour and form, or again by the voice ; 
so in the arts above mentioned, taken as a whole, the 
imitation is produced by rhythm, language, or ‘ harmony, 
either singly or combined. 

8 I. 4—9. 1447 a 24—1447 b 22 

/ ef > \ eat / A ” 
pevat povov i TE avANTLKN Kal 7) KLOapLoTLKy KdV El TIVES 
25 €repat Tuyxdvovow ovoat ToravdTaL THY Sivapuy, olov 1) TOV 
cupiyyavs avT@ Sé To pvdu@ [pipodvTar] ywpis appovias 5 
) TOV OpYnoTa@V, Kat yap ovToL Sia TaV oynpaTifouévov 
pvOpov pipodvtar Kal 70n nal mwdOn Kat mpdkes: 9 dé 6 
> , / a Ul a BN a / \ / 
[émrotrovia] povoy Tots Aoyous idols 7) Tols péTpoLs Kal Tov- 
1447 Tous elTe puyvdoa peT GAAHAY ElO” Evi TIVE Yyéver ypapéevn 
aves Ws ae 9 , \ \" > , a Bene 4 
10 yap av éyoupev dvoudoat KoLWOoVv Tos Zwppovos Kal Hevapyou 
, \ \ > \ , > de y bS \ , 
pipovs Kal Tovs LwKpatixods Noyous, ovdE el Tis Sid TpLpe- 
A / x la) YA an n / a \ 
/ \ e A / / n / \ 
pipnow: wry ot avOpwtrot ye cuvaTTovTES TO péTPH TO 
a / \ SZ \ > / > e 
Tove eXeyeroTroLovs, TOUS Oé ErroTroLovs OvouafovaeL, ovY ws 
\ \ / \ b) \ a \ \ / 
/ \ \ x > \ XK / 8 \ a 
aryopevovTes. Kal yap av tatpiKov %) pvotxov TL dia TOV 8 
4 3 / e an x7 3 \ \ / 
Létpov éxdhépwow, otto Karey eioPacw:* ovdév Sé KoLvov 
b] € , We a \ X ‘4 \ \ \ 
éotw ‘Ounpo kal "Eprredoxre? rv TO wétpov: b10 TOV perv 
a / an 
TownTny Sikatov Kadciy, TOV dé huatodoyov padXAov 7%) ToLN- 

/ e / \ Xv y A \ / / 
20THV. opoiws Sé Kav ev Tis AmavTa TA péTPAa puyvv@V 9 
a \ / / xX / 3 / Ké 
qotoito THY piunow Kabdrep Xarpynuwv érroince Kévrav- 

\ € / b] e / n / a 
pov piKTHv parb@diav é€& amdvTov TOV METPOD, Kal TOTO 

25. tvyxdvovow apogr.: Tuvyxdvwow A* roadrat add. apogr. (‘aliae 
artes similes vi’ Arabs): om, A° 26. r@ a’r@ 5é = male (Margoliouth) 
ptpodvra del. Spengel (confirm. Arabs) 27. 7 apogr. (‘ ars instrumenti 

saltationis’ Arabs): of A®: of <yapiéorepo.> Gomperz: of <xapiévres> 
Zeller: ai Reiz épxnorpGv XZ male (Margoliouth) 29. éromola secl. 
Ueberweg: om. 2 Yrrots } rots] 4 rots Yirots sive 7 Yrdots Trois coni. 
Vahlen 1447 b 9. dvwvuyos add. Bernays (confirmante Arabe ‘quae 
sine nomine est adhuc’) Tvyxdve. otoa Suckow: trvyxdvovoa AS 15. 
kara thv Guelferbytanus: tiv kara A kown AS 16. gvowxdy 
Heinsius (‘re physica’ Arabs: confirm. Averroes) : jovocxéy codd. 22. 
puxThy om. Z puxtiv paywdlay del. Tyrwhitt kal Todrov apogr. : 
kat AC (om. 2): xalrou Rassow: ovx dn cal Ald, verba 20-22 duolws dé 
.. . TOV pérpwv post 12 Troxod’rwy transtulit Susemihl, commate post rovodrww 
posito, deletis 12 mowtro riv plunow et 22 cal woriv: sic efficitur ut 


Thus in the music of the flute and of the lyre, 
‘harmony’ and rhythm alone are employed; also in 
other arts, such as that of the shepherd’s pipe, which 
are essentially similar to these. In dancing, rhythm 5 
alone is used without ‘harmony’; for even dancing 
imitates character, emotion, and action, by rhythmical 

There is another art which imitates by means of 6 
language alone, and that either in prose or verse—which 

1447 b Verse, again, may either combine different metres or con- 
sist of but one kind—but this has hitherto been without 
aname. For there is no common term we could apply to) 
the mimes of Sophron and Xenarchus and the Socratic 
dialogues on the one hand; and, on the other, to 
poetic imitations in iambic, elegiac, or any similar 
metre. People do, indeed, add the word ‘maker’ or 
‘poet’ to the name of the metre, and speak of elegiac 
poets, or epic (that is, hexameter) poets, as if it were not 
the the imitation that. makes the poet, but the verse that 


entitles them all indiscriminately to the name. Even 8 

when a treatise on medicine or natural science is brought 
out in verse, the name of poet is by custom given to the 
author; and yet Homer and Empedocles have nothing in 
common but the metre, so that it would be right to 
call the one poet, the other physicist rather than poet. 
On the same principle, even if a writer in his poetic 9 
imitation were to combine all metres, as Chaeremon did 

in his Centaur, which is a medley composed of metres 

10 I. 9—II. 4. 1447 b 23—1448 a 15 

Tomy TpocayopevTéov. tepl pev ody TovTov Siwpic0w 
TodToy Tov TpoTroy: etal Sé Ties al Tot ypavTas Tots Eipy- 10 
25 uévos, Aéyw Se olov pvOw@ kal pérer Kal péTPH, BoTEP 
id n n / \ ¢e n / \ 4 
4% te Tov SvOvpayBixav Toinow Kal 4» TOY voMwY Kal 1 
te tpaywdia Kal 7 Kopmdia: Suadépovor Se Gre ai péev 
tA a e \ / / \ 9 , \ 
dpa macw ai dé Kata pépos. TavTas pev ody Eyw TAS 
Siahopas Tov Texvav, év ols TrovodvTaL THY pipnoL. 
IT ’Exrel 8¢ pipodvtas of pupovpevor mparrovtas, avdyKn dé 
a > 
rovtous %) a7rovdalous 4 havrous elvas (TA yap HOn cxedov 
? / > a / / \ eae n \ 40 
del tovTows aKodovbel povois, KaKia yap Kal apeTH Ta HON 
Siahépover mavres), Hrot Bertiovas 1) Kal” Hwas 1) xelpovas 
x \ 4 ef e a 4 \ \ 
5%} Kat TovovTous, womep of ypadels: TloAvyvwtos pev yap 
/ / \ / / AVS / x 
kpeitrous, Llavowy dé yeipous, Avoviotos d€ omotous etxalev: 
Sirov 8 Ste wal Tov rexOacadyv ExdoTn puphoewv Fer 2 
ravtas tas Siahopas Kal gorau érépa TO Erepa pipetobar 
£. TOS: SEO pa T¢ pa ple 
a \ / \ > ? / ‘ bd / \ 
TovTov TOV TpOoTroV. Kal yap év Opynoe: Kal avANTE Kai 3 
, 4 , / i RR t \ \ 
10 KBapioe, eats yevécOat TavTas Tas avopwoloTntas* Kai [TO] 
mept Tovs doyous dé Kal Thy YWirometplav, oloy “Opnpos 
pev Berrious, Kreopav 8& opotous, “Hynuav 58 6 Odavos o 
\ dé. / n \ N / € \ A 
Tas Tappdias Touoas mpatos Kal Nixoydpyns o tHv Aevdu- 
dda yeipous: opolws Se cal mepl rods SiPvpdpBovs Kat mepi 4 
15 Tovs vopous, wamep Tyast Kikdrwras Tupdeos al Pido- 

verbis guctoddyor paddrov 4 oinrhy mpocaryopevréoy concludatur locus 
24, at Ald. 1536: ai Riccardianus 16: of A 26, diOvpduBwv apogr. 
28. ma&oac apogr. ody apogr.: od AS 29. ofs Vettori: als codd. 
1448 a 3. xaxig . . . dpern apogr. Z: xaxla. .. dperh AS 7. 54 Morel 
8. 7@ apogr.: Td Ac 10. rd om. Parisinus 2038: 7@ Bywater 12. 
6 ante rds add. Parisinus 2038 18. rpaywdlas ut videtur = (‘qui primus 
faciebat tragoediam’ Arabs) Aevuidda A® pr. m. (recte, ut in Iliadis 
parodia, Tyrrell: cf. Castelvetro): Andidda apogr. A° corr. (y supr. et m. rec.) 
15. &orep yas codd.: worep <’Apyds> Castelvetro: ws Iépoas <xal> 
F. Medici: éomrep yap coni. Vahlen: doep orws fort. = (‘sicut imitatur 
quis, sic Cyclopas etc.’ Arabs): womep of rods coni. Margoliouth 
Kvxd\wras] kuxAwrds A& 


1448 a 


of all kinds, we should bring him too under the general 
term poet. So much then for these distinctions. 

There are, again, some arts which employ all the 10 

means above mentioned,—namely, rhythm, tune, and 
metre. Such are Dithyrambic and Nomic poetry, and 
also Tragedy and Comedy; but between them the 
difference is, that in the first two cases these means 
are all employed in combination, in the latter, now one 
means is employed, now another. 

Such, then, are the differences of the arts with respect 
to the medium of imitation. 

Since the objects of imitation are men in ag¢tion, and 
these men must be either of a higher or a lower type 
(for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, 
goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks 
of moral differences), it follows that we must represent 
men either as better than in. real life, or as worse, or 
as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus 
depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less 
noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. 

Now it is evident that each of the modes of imitation 2 
above mentioned will exhibit these differences, and be-_ 

come a distinct kind in imitating objects that are thus 

distinct. Such diversities may be found even in dancing, 3 
flute-playing, and lyre-playing. So again in language, 

whether prose or verse unaccompanied by music. Homer, 
for example, makes men better than they are; Cleophon 
as they are; Hegemon the Thasian, the inventor of 

parodies, and Nicochares, the author of the Deiliad, worse _- 


Any al 


than they are. The same thing holds good of Dithyrambs 4 », 

and Nomes; here too one may portray different types, as 


12 II. 4—III. 3. 1448 a 16—37 

Eevos [wyunoato av tis]: ev th adTH 88 Siadopa Kal 7 
Tpaywdia mpos THY Kopmdiavy SiéoTnKev> 1 bev yap yel- 
pous 1 d5é€ Bedriovs pipetoOar BovreTa TOV vov. 

7 \ 4 / \ Aye ¢ / / 
Ers 6€ rovTwv Tpitn Siahopa TO @s Exacta TOUT@Y mpH- 

BA \ al an \ 4 
200alTO av TUS. Kal yap év Tols avTois Kal Ta avTa pi- 




al 4 ay \ b A \ o / / 
petoOar Eoti oTé pev atrayyédAovTa (n Erepov TL ryuyvo- 
¢ v4 a x e \ > em \ \ 
pevov, WoTrep “Ounpos trovet, ) @s TOV avTOV Kal pu) pETa- 
/ ba / e / \; ee n \ 
BadXovta), 7) Tavtas ws TpaTTOVTas Kal évepyovvTas [ToS 
f : LJ \ \ 4 a e / / > 
povpévous]. év Tpiol d2 TavTass Stadopais } pwipnois éorev, 
e 5 : te / b e eet peat 4 ef n 
@s elTomev KaT apyds, év ols Te Kal A Kal @S. WoTE TH 
\ ¢ Ae x 6 \ ‘O / > a n 
ev 0 autos av ein piyntns Opnp@ odors, pipovvrar 
\ ba / A a 4 / / \ 
yap aupw orrovoaious, TH 5é Apiotopdver, mpattovtas yap 
a 4 8 A 4 ied Py / a 
ppodvTar Kal Spavtas dudo. S0ev Kal dpdyata Kanrei- 
fa , > / ¢ a 5 a PS) \ \ 
cOat tTwes avtad hacw, btt pipodvtTar SpavTas. 610 Kal 
lal nw n 4 
avTiTovodyTaL THS Te Tpaywdias Kal THs Kwpue@dias of Ao- 
a a \ \ / e a v b] n 
pets (THs pev yap Kopwdias ot Meyapels of te évtadOa 
A ? a 
ws éml THs Tap avtois Snwoxpatias yevoyevys, Kal ot x 
Lal e \ a 
LuKedlas, éxelOev yap Hv "Eriyappwos 0 Touts ToAN@ 
/ Xx / \ / \ n / 
mpotepos ov Xuiwvidov cal Mayvntos: Kai ths tpaywdias 
” fal > , , a: eed ral 
éviot Tov év IleXotrovynoew) Tovovpmevot TA OVOMATA oNpELOV* 
avTOL péev yap Kopas Tas TepLotKioas Karey pacw, ’AOn- 

/ \ / e \ > > * n / 
vaiovs d€ SHpmous, @ KaUMoO’S OvK aT TOD Kwpabew Ne- 

16. [utpjoarro dy ris] secludendum coni. Vahlen Ty abry Sé Vettori 
(‘in eadem discrepantia’ Arabs): ratry 5¢ 79 M. Casaubon: at’ry 52 ry codd. 
18. rév viv om. ut videtur 2 21. 6ré pev . . . yeyvdpevov] <> ore 
bev dmaryyéAdovra <odré 5’> erepdy te yeyvopevov Zeller, recte, ut opinor: 
eodem fere pervenit Arabem secutus Margoliouth rt secl, Zeller, Spengel 
22. rdv secl. Bywater 23. wdvras] wavra I. Casaubon TOUS [LjLou- 
pévous seclusi (olim secl. Vahlen): tuetur 2: [rods] pimodmevoy Friedrichs, 
Schmidt 25. kal & kal ds] dvayxalws ut videtur = kal & om. Ac: 
add. apogr. (confirm. Arabs) 32. Smnuoxparelas A 34, Xiwvldov 
Robortello (confirm. Arabs): ywvldov A° 35. fort. <d’> év.o0 Bywater 
36. avdrot Spengel: obra codd. "AO@nvalovs edit. Oxon. 1760 et Spengel: 
adOnvaia codd. (cf. 1460 b 35), tuetur Wilamowitz 


Timotheus and Philoxenus differed in representing their = 
Cyclopes. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from ; ( 
Comedy ; : (for Comedy at aims at seen ing: men as worse, / 


III ‘There is still a third difference—the manner in which 
each of these objects may be imitated. “For the medium - n«~ 
being the same, and the objects the same, the poet may 
imitate by narration—in which case he can either take 
another personality as Homer does, or speak in his own 
person, unchanged—or he may present all his characters _ 
as living and moving before us., ‘a 

These, then, as we said at the beginning, are the 2 

ge the medium, the objects, and the manner. So that from 

PSA LH Coker. 

three differences which distinguish artistic imitation,— ; f 

one point of view, Sophocles i is-an imitator of the same 
kind as Homer—for both imitate higher types of 
character ; from another point of view, of the same kind 
as Aristophanes—for both imitate persons acting and 
doing. Hence, some say, the name of ‘drama’ is given 3 
to such poems, as representing action. For the same 
reason the Dorians claim the invention both of Tragedy 
and Comedy. The claim to Comedy is put forward by 
the Megarians,—not only by those of Greece proper, who 
allege that it originated under their democracy, but also by 
the Megarians of Sicily, for the poet Epicharmus, who is 
much earlier than Chionides and Magnes, belonged to that 
country. ‘Tragedy too is claimed by certain Dorians of the 
Peloponnese. In each case they appeal to the evidence of 
language. The outlying villages, they say, are by them 
called k@mar, by the Athenians S401: and they assume 
that Comedians were so named not from xwpdfew, ‘ to 

14 III. 3—IV. 6. 1448 a 38—1448 b 23 

yOévTas aa TH KaTa KOpas THdVH aTiymalopévous éx TOD 

Cal \ A 
148baoTews. Kal TO Tovey avTtol pev Spav, "AOnvaiovs 8& 






\ \ lal an 
TpaTtTew mpocayopevew. Tept pev ody THY Svahopay 4 
/ , A / a 
Kal Toca Kal Tives THS pLunoews eipnoOw Tada. 
"EB / de a \ ¢ \ \ a 4 7 
oixact dé yevvijoat péev 6AwS THY ToinTLKHY aiTiat dvO 
/ / a 
TWes Kal avrar pvotkai. TO Te yap pipetcOar cvpuduTor 2 
a > / b] / b] / \ Ul / 
tots av@pwros ék Taidwv éoti, Kat TtovTm Siahépovor 
lal ov / 4 / / > \ / 
TaV adov Coov OTL pipnTiKdTaToY éoTL Kal Tas pany. 
a / \ 
gets Tovetras Sid puopnoews Tas TpwTas, Kal TO yaipey 
Tols pupnpact mavTas. onpuetov S€ TovTov TO cuuBatvor 8 
n a c a 
ert TOV Epyav: & yap avTa AVTTNPAS OpOpev, TOUT@Y TAS 
/ / a 
eiKovas TAS padiaTa HKpLBopévas Yalpopev OewpodyTes, olov 
Onpiov te pophas THY atimoTadtwy Kal vexpav. aitvov bé 4 
/ / a / 
kal TovTov, OT pavOdvey ob povoy Tos dirocdpots HOvrTov 
val e / na 
Ga Kal Tois Addows opmoiws, GAN él Bpayd Kowevod- 
a fa) / / ¢ wn 
ow avtod. Sia yap TovTO yalpovot Tas cixovas OpavTes, STL S 
ocupBaive Oewpodvtas pcvOdvew Kab ovrroyilerOat Ti exa- 
a \ / 
aTov, olov StL ovTos éxeivos: émel édy pu) TUYN TpoEwpaKes, 
b) e , , \ id \ ’ * \ \ > 
ovXY  pipnua Troimoes THY Hdoviy adda Sia THY arrep- 
/ / 
yaciavy 7) THY xpotav 7) Sid ToravTnv Tia AdAHY aiviav. 
\ / ef e¢ An a a \ a € / 
Kata pvow 5) dvtos Hiv Tod pipetoOar Kal THs dpyovias 6 
\ a a \ \ / 54 / n ec 6 a > 
kab Tod puOmod (Ta yap pétpa Ste popia TOV puvOuav éoTé 
/ ? > a / \ . eh 4 \ 
davepov) €& dpyis wepucotes xal adTa pddiota Kata 

/ \ , an 
MiKpov TpodyovTes eyévynoay Thy Toinow ék TOV av’ToTxe- 

1448 bl. xal 7d rwoetvy . . . mpocayopevew om. Arabs 4, Sd\ws om. 
Arabs 5. adra: Parisinus 2038: ad’ral A¢ 13. kal rovrov apogr. 
(confirm. Arabs): «al rodro A®: [kal rovrov] Zeller: xat [rovrov] Spengel : 
kat <déyos> rovrov Bonitz 18. ot7~x 7 Hermann, et =, ut videtur: 
ov*xi codd. Thv ndovhy om. Arabs 20. 5) coni. Vahlen: 65¢ codd. 
22. kat attra] mpds atra Ald.: <els> atrd xal Gomperz: kal adrda post 
pdduore traiciendum esse coni, Susemihl 


revel, but because they wandered from village to village 
(kata xopas), being excluded contemptuously from the 
wasp city. They add also that the Dorian word for ‘doing’ 
is Spdv, and the Athenian, rpdrrevv. 
This may suffice as to the number and nature of the 4 
various modes of imitation. 

IV Poetry in general seems to have sprung from two 
causes, each of them lying deep in our nature. First, the 2 
instinct of imitation is implanted in man from childhood, 
one difference between him and other animals being 
that he is the most imitative of living creatures, and 
through imitation learns his earliest lessons; and no less 
universal is the pleasure felt in things imitated. Wes: 
have evidence of this in the facts of experience. 
‘Objects which in themselves we view with pain, we 
delight to contemplate when reproduced with minute 
fidelity } such as the forms of the.most ignoble animals 
and of dead bodies. The causé of this again is, that to 4 
learn gives the liveliest pleasure, not only to philosophers 
but to men in general; whose capacity, however, of 
learning is more’ limited. Thus the reason why mens 
enjoy seeing a likeness is, that in contemplating it they 
find themselves learning or inferring, and saying perhaps, 
‘Ah, that is he.” For if you happen not to have seen 
the original, the pleasure will be due not to the imitation 
as such, but to the execution, the colouring, or some such 
other cause. 

z _Imitation, then, is one e instinct of our nature. Next, 6 
there is the instinct for ‘harmony’ and rhythm, metres 
being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, 

starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their 


yr ; 

16 IV. 6—11. 1448 b 24—1449 a 7 

\ a 
Siacpatov. dteotacOn Sé Kata Ta oixeia HON 1 Troinots* 7 
e \ \ t \ \ b) a 4 
2501 pev yap oeuvoTepor TAS Karas eupodvTO mpdkes Kab 
\ A , € \ > n \ A , 

Tas T@Y ToLovTwY, ol dé EvTEMETTEPOL Tas TaV davrw?, 
na / n A ef cf bd , 
Tp@Tov royous TovovyTes, WoTEpP ATEpos Duvous Kal eyxwopia. 

a \ 9 \ ‘oO / 1d \ ” > a n 
TaY wéev ovv mpo “Opnpou ovdevos Eyomev eitreiy ToLodTor & 
/ \ s 4 \ 
Toinua, etKos dé elvat TrodXovs, aro bé ‘Ounpou apEapévois 
4 - > / e / \ \ A > 
30 oti, otov éxeivou o Mapyirns Kai ta TovadTa. év ols Kab 
\ / a / a 
TO apportov [iawBetov] HAGE pwétpov, S16 Kal iawBetov Ka- 
a n x4 a / / »/ / 
% / lal fal e€ \ e an e » Wane JE 2 
éyévovTo TOV Tadao oi wéev HpwiKav oi Sé iduBov tovn- 
\ lal 
tat. oaomep S€ Kal Ta orrovdaia pddiota TrounTtys “Opnpos 
/ \ td / 
35 Hv (moves yap ody STL ed GAA<a> [670] Kal prpnoers Spapa- 
\ a 
TuKas éTroinoev), OUTMS Kal TA THS Kwppdias oynpaTa 
a / > / \ val 
mMp@Tos wvirédeEev, ov wWoyov GAAa TO yedotov Spayaro- 
/ e \ , ’ 
Touocas: 0 yap Mapyirns avddoyov éxet, @omso ‘Idds 
“ite, AO / \ \ / e \ z N 
49a Kal » ‘Odvoceta mpos Tas Tpaypdias, o'Tw Kal ovTOS mTpds 
/ na 
Tas Kopmdias. tmapahaveions Sé THs Tpaywdias Kal Kw- 10 
/ Rr ri SaaS! ve , \ / ¢ A \ \ 
podias ot ed’ Exatépay THY Toinow opu@VTES KaTa THY 
> , / e \ > \ a >/ \ Ppt f 
olxetay pvow ot pév avti Tov tduBov Kwp@doTroLol éyé- 
svovtTo, of 5é avtl Tav érav TpaypdodiddcKaro, Sid TO 
/ 1 ae: J / / id a > 4 
pelfova Kal evTi“oTepa TA TYHMATA EeivaL TadDTA éxeivor. 

\ \ > b) tal 9) 2 ae EA € / a 
TO pev ody éricKoTrely eb ap yet On 1 Tpay@dia Tots 11 

27. drepo Spengel: érepo codd, 30. «al (post ofs) Ald.: xara Ae 
31. lapBlov (bis) A& lau Betov ante #AGe secl. Stahr 35. adda Bonitz 
(confirm. Arabs): a\X’ bre codd.: ad’ re Tucker dpaparixas AS et =: 
Spauarix@s apogr. - 88. 6 apogr.: 7d AS 1449 a6. welfova apogr. : 

petgov Ac 7. el dpa éxe Parisinus 2038: mwapéxe A®: dp’ éxe. Vahlen 


special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth 
to Poetry. 

Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to 7 
the individual character of the writers. The graver 
spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of 
good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions 
of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as 
the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of 
famous men. A poem of the satirical kind cannot 8 
indeed be put down to any author earlier than Homer; 
though many such writers probably there were. But 
from Homer onward, instances can be cited,—his own 
Margites, for example, and other similar compositions. 
The appropriate metre was also here introduced ; hence 
the measure is still called the iambic or lampooning 
measure, being that in which people lampooned one 
another. ., Thus the older poets were distinguished as 9 
writers of(heroic or of lampooning verse. 

As, in the serious style, Homer is pre-eminent among Br coe 

poets, for he alone combined dramatic form with 
excellence of imitation, so he too first laid down the 
main_lines_of Comedy, by dramatising the “Tadicrous 
instead _of writing personal satire. His Margites bears 
149 the same relation to Comedy that the Iliad and Odyssey 
do to Tragedy. But when Tragedy and Comedy came 10 
to light, the two classes of poets still followed their 
natural bent: the lampooners became | writers of Comedy, 
and the Epic poets were succeeded by Tragedians, 
since the drama was a larger and higher form of 
Whether Tragedy has as yet perfected its proper 11 

18 IV. 11—15. 1449 a 8—28 

n / > 
eldcow ixavas } ov, a’To Te KaO adTto FKpiverar 4} vait 
/ n 
kal pos Ta Oéatpa,adXos NOYos. yevouévyn <0 > odv aT apxAs 
b 5 / \ 23-4 eo bb A) Se \ > \ 
10 aUTOTYEOLATTLKY, Kal avTH Kal h Kop@dia, Kal % wey aro 
nr / \ / a , 
tav éEapyovtwy tov SilipauBov, 7 Sé amd Tdv Ta har- 
AKA A ETL Kal VOY év Todas TOV TOAEwY StapéveL vVo- 
/ \ \ > / / sd a. 2 
piCopeva, KaTa puxpov nvénOn Tpoayovtwy Scov éyiryveTo 
\ a \ a 
davepov avtTihs, Kal moddNas petaBoras petaBarotca 7 
/ > / > AS cae \ Se / \ / 
15 Tpaypoia émavoaTto, émel Eoxe THY avTHs hiow. Kal TO 
fal 2 an a > e. %\ ’ / a ? 4 
Te Tov UToKpLTOY TAHOos €E évos eis S00 patos Aiayv- 
” \ \ a Peay ee 2 \ \ ’ 
dos nyaye Kal Ta TOV Yyopov HAaTTM@CE Kat TOV oYyoV 
\ Ul a \ 
TpwoTayovicTny TapecKkevacev, Tpels Sé€ Kal sKnvoypadiay 
A \ \ / a 
Lodowrys. ere Sé TO péyeOos ex pixpov pvO@v Kat Vé- 
\ A A 
20 Eews yedoias Sia TO €x caTtupiKod petaBareiv owe arre- 
/ / / a 
ceuvivOn. TO TE MéTPOV EK TETPaLeTPOV tapPeElov éyéveEToO* 
fal / n \ 

TO pev yap TpOTov TeTpawéeTPH Exp@vTO Sia TO TaTUpLKHY 
ae / 3 \ f / \ Vd 
Kal opynoTikwrépay eivat THY Toinow, réeEews Se yevowéevns 

eae, | i. / \ > lal / Ka / A 
avTn 1 pivots TO olKeloy péTpov edper paddoTa yap AeKTL- 
n \ al a 

2s KOV TOV péTpwV TO iawBeloy éaTiv+ onpetoy 5é TovToV" 

a a / tel / al 
TreloTa yap lauBela réyomey ev TH Siardé€xT@ TH Tpds 

\ / a 
Gddjrous, EEdweTpa Se oduyadKis Kal éxBaivovTes THs Ne- 

a \ / , 

KTiKnS appovias. ets dé émevcodiwy mAnOn Kal Ta GAN 

8. xplverar } val kal A®: val secl. Bursian: xplveras elvar kal apogr.: Kpivac 
kat Forchhammer: fort. xplverac elvac 4 kal: adrw re xar’ avdrd eivar 
Kpetrrov #) mpds Odrepa X ut videtur (Margoliouth) 9. yevouévn 5 ob 
Riccardianus 46 : yevouévy ody apogr. : ‘yevoudvns ody AS 10. adrocxedia- 
OTLKH apogr.: avTrorxediacTixyjs A° ll. gaddxad apogr.: Paina A°: 
gauvrixa vel daira = 12. diawéves apogr.: diapévew AS 15. avrijs 
Bekker: éavrfjs apogr.: avrfjs A° 19. NAééews] Ad~ers Z (‘orationes’ 
Arabs): <7 Aééus ék> Aé~ews Christ. Omissum vocabulum collato Arabe id 
esse Margoliouth suspicatur cuius vice Graeculi dyyyopla usurpant 20. 
carupiaKxov Ac 21 et 25. lapBlov Ac 26. lauBla A° 27. é&dmerpa] 
rerpduerpa Winstanley els NexTixhy appovlay Wecklein (cf. Rhet. iii. 8. 
1408 b 82): codicum lect. tutatur Arabs verba 25 onuctov—28 dapmovias 
suadente Usener secl. Susemihl 28. post +d74y punctum del. Gomperz 
adda ws apogr. (confirm. Arabs): &\\ws A®: dAXa ols Hermann 




types or not; and whether it is to be judged in itself, or 
in relation also to the audience,—this raises another — 
question. Be that as it may, Tragedy—as also Comedy 12 
—was at first there improvisation.’ The one originated 
with the authors of the Dithyramb, the other with those 

of the phallic songs, which are still in us use in many ¢ of 

our cities. Tragedy advanced by slow y degrees ; ‘each 

new element that showed itself was in turn developed. 
Having passed through many changes, it found its natural 
form, and there it stopped. 

Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he dimin- 13 
ished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the 
leading part to the dialogue. “Sophocles raised the number 
of actors to three, and added scene-painting. Moreover, 14 
it was not till late that the short plot was discarded for 
one of greater compass, and the grotesque diction of the 
earlier_satyric form for the stately manner of Tragedy. 
The iambic measure then replaced the trochaic tetrameter, 
which was originally employed when the poetry was of 
the satyric order, and had greater affinities with dancing. . 
Once dialogue had come in, Nature herself discovered the 
appropriate measure. For the iambic is, of all measures, 
the most colloquial: we see it in the fact that con- 
versational speech runs into iambic lines more frequently 
than into any other kind of verse; rarely into hexa- 
meters, and only when we drop the colloquial in- 
tonation. The additions to the number of ‘episodes’ 15 
or acts, and the other accessories of which tradition 

20 IV. 15—V. 4. 1449 a 29—1449 br 

os Exacta KoopnOjvar réyeTas EcTw Hiv eipnuéva: tro- 
go Av yap av icws Epyov ein Siekrévar nal” Exacrov. 

v “H 8€ copmdia éoriv dorep elrropev pipnots pavrorépov 
Hév, 08 pévToL KaTa Tacav Kakiav, GAA Tod aioypod 
€oTt TO yedotoy poptov. TO yap yedoloy éeoTW dapapTy- 

/ \ S > / \ > / b] 
pad Tt Kal aloyos av@dvvoy Kai ov POaptixov, olov ev- 

35 Obs TO yeAolov Tpdcwtoyv aicypov te Kai SvecTpappéevov 
4 > 4° € \ 9S ipl / / \ 
dvev odvvns. ai pev odv THs Tpaywdias petaBdoes Kal 
ds av éyévovto ov rAcAHOacw, » Sé Kopwdia Sia TO py 

149b orrovddterOar €& apyts édabev* Kal yap yopov Kapmdav 
éwé mote 6 dpywv Edwxev, AAN €OedovTal Hoar. Hon SE 
oxnpaTa Twa avThs éxovons of eyomevor adTAs moiral 
pvnpovevovra, tis d& mpocwma amédwxev 7) mpodoyous 4) 
/ e a \ ow lal b] / \ , 

5 7AnOn vrroKpitav Kal doa ToLadTa, Hyvontar. TO dé pwv- 
Oovs trovetv [’Emiyappos nat Popys] rd perv && apyis 
éx Ywxedias HAGe, Tv Se “AOnvnow Kparns mp@tos ipkev 
adbéuevos THs lauBucns iddas KxaOddov moteiy AOyous Kal 
pvOovs. 1) ev odv ErroTroLia TH Tpaywdia pméypl mev TOD pweTa 

/ / / 3 5 / > Wa) a 

10 wéTpov [peydXou] pipwnors eivas oTrovdalov nKodovOycev: TH 
d¢ 7d pétpov dmdodyv éyew Kat amayyedlav eivat, TavTy 
29. wept wev ody Tro’rwy rocaira add. Ald. ante éorw 32. ddd’ @ Tod 
aicxpod Friedreich: d\\a <xKara 7d yedotov, > Tod <8’> aloxpod Christ: ‘sed 
tantum res ridicula est de genere foedi quae est portio et ridicula Arabs, i.e. 
GANG pbvor Tb yedoidv écrt TOD aicxpod 6 wdpidy ore Kal Td yedotov Z, quod ex 
duabus lectionibus conflatum esse censet Susemihl (1) aAAd pdpiovy pdvoy 7d 
yedotbv éore ToD alcxpod, (2) GAA Tod aloxpod mdbpidy €or Kal Td yedotov 
33. yéAovoy (bis) A 1449 b 3. of Aevyduevor] dAlyo. pev of Castelvetro: 
éXlyo ev [ot] Usener 4, mpoddyous A°: mpddroyov Christ: Aéyous Her- 
mann 6. ’Emixyappyos cal Pépyuis secl. Susemihl: <éxeiOev yap fornv> 
"Exlxappos xal Pépuis post #AGe Bywater, collato Themistio, Or. xxvii. p. 387 A, 
recte, ut opinor 8. eidéas AS 9-10. néxpe méev TOU werd wérpov Thurot 
(cf. Arab.) : wéxpe udvov mérpou meyddov codd. : wéxpe mév rod uérpy <év unxer> 
peyddw coni, Susemihl: péxpe wéev rod wérpy Tyrwhitt: méxpe wdvov <rod did 

Aéyou éu>pérpov peyddov Ueberweg 10. weydédov codd.: secl. Bursian: 
pera Abyou Ald. et, ut videtur, 2 7@ Ald.: 7d Ac ll. ravrn AS 


tells, must be taken as already described; for to discuss 
them in detail would, doubtless, be a large under- 

¥ Comedy is, as we have said, an imitation of characters 
of a lower _type,—not, however, in the full sense of the 

the ahi It consists in some A dice or agitgeme which 
is not painful or destructive. To take an obvious 
example, the comic mask is ugly and distbrted, but does 
not imply pain. : 

The successive changes through which Tragedy passed, 2 
and the authors of these changes, are well known, whereas 
Comedy has had no history, because it wis not at first 

1449 » treated seriously. It was late before the Aychon granted 
a comic chorus to a poet; the performers were till then 
voluntary. Comedy had already taken definite shape 
when comic poets, distinctively so called, dre heard. of. 
Who furnished it with masks, or prologues,‘or increased 3 
the number of actors,—these and other similar details 
remain unknown. As for the plot, it came originally 
from Sicily; but of Athenian writers Crates was the 
first who, abandoning the ‘iambic’ or lampooning form, 
generalised his themes and plots. 

Epic poetry agrees with Tragedy in so far as it is an 4 
imitation in verse of characters of a higher type. | They Xx 
differ, in that Epic poetry admits but one kind of 
metre, and is narrative in form. They differ, again, 

22 V. 4—VI. 4. 1449 b 12—34 

Siapépovow: ere dé TO pnxer, <érrel> 7) pwev OTL wadloTa 
p éTe O€ TO LKEL, <eTTEL> 7 ME Mh 
a eae / / e> / 5 x \ > vd 
TEelpaTal VITO wiav Trepiodoy HdLov Eivat 1) piKpOV eEadraTTELW, 
e de > 7 »/ A / \ / 8 / / 
\ a e n a \ 
15 TO Tp@Tov opmoiws év tails Tpaywodiass TOUTO ETroloUY Kal ev 
a 4 / > \ \ an 
Tois émecw. pépn 5 éotl ta pev TavTd, Ta Sé tdia Tijs b 
/ / / 
tpaywdias: Siomrep Satis mepl tpaywdias olde o7rovdatias 
/ na / 
kat gavrys, olde kal mepl érav: & pev yap éroToua 
” e / ” / A \ a. AK > / > al 
Evel, vTapyel TH Tpaywdia, & dé avTH, ov Tayta év TH 
20 €mroTrouia. 
\ a . a \ \ 
VI Ilepi pév ody tis év Eapétpois pipntiKhs Kal epi Kw- 
bb A > a \ be dé. rE ’ 
H@dias vaTtepov épodpev, Tept Sé Tpaywdias Aéyopev ava- 
/ A la \ / 4 n 
AaBovtes avdtis ex ToV eipnuévav TOV yiWopevoy pov THs 
> / 4 9 bb / 4 5 / 
ovaias. éoTWW ovv Tpaywdia piunois mpaktews otrovdaias 2 
\ , / > / c 4 / \ C2 
25 Kal Terelas péyeOos eyovons, Sucpévm Ooyw yYopls Eexa- 
a na r > 
oTm Tay eldayv év Tois popiots, Sparta Kal ov dv atray- 
/ , / \ n 7 
yedlas, 80 édéou kal poBov Tepaivovca Thy THY ToOLOVTa@Y 
/ / \ 
Tabnuatov Kdbapow. Réywo Se Hdvopévoy pévy AOYyor TOV 3 
4 e \ \ id / \ / \ \ \ n 
€yovta puOuwov Kal appoviay Kal pédos, TO b€ ywpis Tots 
16 \ 8 \ , ” / / ra) \ J v4 
30 eldect TO Oia péTpov Evia povoy TrepaiverOat Kal Taduw ETEpa 
PS \ UA b \ \ / a \ 4 
la pérous. mel O€ mparrovres TroLlovyTaL THY pina, 4 
a p rae ge 2.1% a 7 4 d¢, e 
mMpatov pev €& avayKens ay ein TL popioy Tpay@dias Oo 
a v / 5 / \ VA > / \ 
THS Orrews KOopOS, eiTa peAoTrOLia Kal EELS Ev TOVTOLS yap 

a \ / / \ / \ ue: | \ a 
TowovvTar THY piunow. Réywo Oe A€EW pevy adTIVY THY TOV 

12. duadépee Hermann (confirm, Arabs) <émrel> 4 wev Gomperz: <7> 
h wev coni. Vahlen: <ei> 7 wév Tucker: # wév yap apogr. 14. rotrw 
(? robro pr. m.) A¢ diagdépovew Christ 16. éreow et &ract var. lect. 
= (Diels), ‘in omnibus epesi’ Arabs Tatra apogr.: Tatra A° 19, 
airje A®: abr apogr.: atrn Reiz: év abry Richards 21. wév add. apogr. : 
om. A¢ 22. dvadaBdyres Bernays: dmodaBdyres codd. 25. éxdorw 
Reiz: éxdorov codd. 28. mabnudrwy corr. apogr., LD: pabnudrwv 
Ac 29, kat pédos] Kal pérpov Vettori: sec]. Tyrwhitt 30. pdvor] 
Hbpra = (* partes’ Arabs) 34, abriy] tra’rnvy Bywater 





f / 



in their length: for Tragedy _ endeavours, as far as 
possible, to confine itself to a single revolution of the 
sun, or but Slightly to exceed this limit ; whereas the 
Epic action has no limits of time. This, then, is a 
second point of difference; though at first the same 
freedom was admitted in Tragedy as in Epic poetry. 

Of their constituent parts some are common to both, 5 ; 

some peculiar to Tragedy: whoever, therefore, knows 
what is good or bad Tragedy, knows also about Epic 
poetry. All the elements of an Epic poem are found 
in Tragedy, but the elements of a Tragedy are not all 
found in the Epic poem. 

Of the poetry which imitates in hexameter verse, and 
of Comedy, we will speak hereafter. Let us now discuss 
Tragedy, resuming its formal definition, as resulting from 

Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an “action that. is 2 -* 

ik has been already said. 

rious, complete, and of a certain m magni itude ; in language 
embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the 
several kinds being found in separate parts of the play ; 

in the form of action, not of narrative; throwyh pity and 

ay - A ¢ f 

fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. By 3 

f “language embellished, I mean | language into into which 
rhythm, ‘harmony,’ and song ate By ‘ the several kinds 
in separate parts, I mean, that some parts are rendered 
through the medium of verse alone, others again with 
the aid of song. 

Now as tragic imitation implies persons acting, it neces- 4 

sarily follows, in the first place, that Spectacular equip- 
ment will be a part of Tragedy. Next, Song and Diction, 
for these are the medium of imitation. By ‘Diction’ 

24 VI. 4—9. 1449 b 35—1450a 15 

; fe & \ 

35 uétpwov cuvOeow, pedotroliay dé 6 THv Stvamw davepav 
” a > \ de / , > , / be 
eyes Taow. eémel de mpdkews eoTe pinot, mpaTrteTat Sé 5 
e \ n / , 4 
UTO TOY TPATTOVT@Y, ods aVayKN ToLOvs TiVas clvaL KaTa 

\ \ 
Te TO 700s Kal thy Sidvoray (Sia yap TovT@y Kal Tas 
oY a 
1450a mpd&eus elval hapev trosds Twas, wépuKev Sé alta dvo TOV 
4 5 
mpagewy eivat, Stdvoray kat 700s, Kal Kata tavTas Kal 
Ff \ a 
TuyxXavovet Kal amoTvyxdvouct mdavtes), Extiv 5) THs pev 6 
/ ¢ D0 ¢ , \ a4) a \ 
mpakews o pidos 7 pipnoiss Aéyw yap pvCov TodTor, THY 

, A : 
cuvleow Tov Tpaypatov, Ta 5é HOn, Kal’ 5 Towovs Tivas 


> , \ 
eivat papwev Tovs mpatrovtas, Sidvovay Sé, év Ocots Réyor- 
b “A 4 x 
Tes amoderkviaciv TL 1) Kal atropaivoytas yvouny. avayKn7 
5 / 4 , 9 > 
ov mTacns Tpaywdias pépn elvar &, Kal’ & trod Tis éotly 
e / a 3 a 
n Tpaywdia: tadta 8 éatt pdOo0s Kat On Kat réEis Kal 
/ \ a 
10 dudvowa Kal dis Kal pedoTrotia. ols perv yap pupodvrat, 
5 , / b] / e be a 4 a de lal , 
vo pépn éotiv, ws S€ ptpodvTar, év, & 5é plpodvrat, Tpia, 
\ a 
Kal Tapa TavTa Ovdév, ToOUTOLS pev OY <TrdyTEs> [OvK driryoL 8 
> A ¢ bd a 4 tal ” \ \. 4 pa 
avTav] ws etrreiv KéeyxpnvTat Tots eldeowv* Kal yapdrpes Exe TAY 
n / 
kal 4005 Kat pdOov Kab réEw Kal pédos kal Sidvoray @oad- 

/ a) 
I5TwS. péyorov 5é TovTar éotly 7) TOY TpaypaToY cbaTacIs: 9 

35. pérpwr] dvoudrwy Hermann, collato 1450 b 15 36. macw Maggi: 
macay codd. 38. dia dé Zeller dia yap Tobrwy ... mavres in 

.. parenthesi Thurot 1450 a 1. wéduxev 5é apogr.: répuxev AS alria 
codd,: alrias Christ 8. 6) Eucken: 6é codd. 4, rodrov] rotro 
Maggi: secl, Christ (cf. Arab.) 5. «add Ac: xaé” & apogr. 8. 
Ka’ & woud apogr.: Kkaforola A& 12. otk ddlyo. avr&v ws elrety codd.: 
é\lyou airay <dmayres> wes elmeiv coni. Bywater: obk édlyo ai’rdvy <ddda 
wdvres> ws elreiy Bursian : ox éXlyo. a’r&v om. X, sed wdvrws (?=mdvres) 
add. (vid. Margoliouth). Secluso igitur tanquam glossemate ov« yo 
airSv, scripsi <mdvres> ws elreiv: cf. Rhet. i. 1. 1354 a 12, ddlyor codd.: 
ovdév ws elreiy AC marg., ubi ddlyor glossema esse suspicor, veram lect. oddév 
ws elreiv: Dem. or. xxxvili. 6 mdvrwy trav mrelorav ws elretv, ubi Tov 
mrelorwv secluserim. Viam monstravit Diels, qui tamen wdvres quoque 
omisso, Tovros pév odv ws elev scripsit: ovK dAlyo adrav <a)’ €v act 
mavres> Gomperz: ovk ddlyo airav <a\d\G wdvtes waor.> Zeller: <mdvrss 
év racw airfis> Susemihl ~~ 13. des vel yw apogr.: Sis AS was 
jure suspexeris 


I mean the mere metrical arrangement of the words: 
as for ‘ Song,’ ik is a term whose sense every one under- 
stands. Aw : 

Again, Tragedy is the imitation of an action; and an5 
action implies personal agents, who necessarily possess 
certain distinctive qualities both of character and thought; 

1450a for it is by these that we qualify actions—“themselves, 

and these—thou sht) and atural 

causes from which actions _ spri ng, and on actions. again 

all success or failure depends. Hence, ‘the Plot is the 6 (>. 

imitation of the action :—for by plot I here mean the ° 
arrangement of the incidents.’ By Character I mean 
that in virtue of which we ascribe certain qualities to 
the agents. Thought is required wherever a statement 
is proved, or, it may be, a general truth enunciated. 
| Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six bec which 7 4 | 
parts determine its 1a pom Rates Plot, Character, 

. —————— AEE ae 

Diction, Thought, Spectacle, So Song. Two of the parts con- 
aha ahe 

stitute the medium of imitation, one the manner, and three 

the objects of imitation!| And these complete the list. 

‘These elements have been employed, we may say, by the 8 

poets , in fact, every play contains Spectacular 
elemen well as Character, Plot, Diction, Song, and 


But most important of all is the structure of theg 





26 VI. 97—14. 1450 a 16—37 

4) yap Tpaywdia piunois éotw ovK avOpwTav adda Tpd- 

Eews xal Biov: <o 5é Bios> év mpdkev éorly Kal Td Tédos 

nel > / ’ / peeks de \ \ \ nO: / 

\ \ \ / > / x > / 4 
tives, KaTa 5é Tas mpakers eddaipmoves 7 TOvVaYTiOV. ovKOUD 
¢ \ v / / > \ \ by 
dtws TA 70n pinowvTa, mpaTTovow, adrAa TA HON ovp- 

/ \ \ / ef \ / \ 
TaparapBavovow dia tas mpdges' woTe TA TpaypaTa Kal 
e a lA n 4 \ \ / / e / 
0 wiOos TéXos THs Tpayw@dias, TO Sé TéXOS péeyLoTOY aTraVTOP. 
ére dvev pev mpak yK ay yé dia, a dé 

be patews ovK av yévorto Tpaywdia, dvev é 
506 , at as, e \ a / A / > 40 
nOav yévort av. al yap TV véwv TOV TrEicToY anbes 
Tpaywdlat eioly Kal 6Aws ToinTal ToAXAOl ToLodTOL, oloy Kal 

la) / a e 
Tav ypapéwy ZLedéis pos WloAvyvwrtov trérovOev: 0 pwéev yap 
Tlorvyvwtos ayabos nOoypddos, 7) Sé LevEwdos ypadr ovdev 
Eyer 00s. ete édv tis epeEns Of phoes HOikas Kai réeEe 
\ / > / > / A 9 a 
kal Siavoia ed Trerrounpévas, od Towjoe 0 Hv THs Tpayw- 
dias épyov, GAA TOAD paAdov 7 KaTadcerTépois TOUVTOLS 
Keypnuevn tpaywdia, éyovaa 5é pv0ov Kai cvoTacw Tpa- 
/ \ be / \ / & lal e 
yeatov. mpos S€ TovTos TA péyiota ols Wuyaywyet 1) 
Tpaypodia, ToD wvOou pépn éeotiv, at Te TepimréTevat Kal ava- 
a e ; a a / 
yvopices. éTt onpelov STL Kal o1 éyxElpodvTeEs TroLety Tpo- 
a a y an 
Tepov Svvavtar TH réEEL Kal Tois HOcow axpiBodv 7) Ta 
a \ 
Tpaypata cuvictacbat, oiov Kal of mp@ToL Tomtal oyedov 

dmavres. apxn pev ovv Kal olov Wuyi 0 pd0os THs Tpa- 

16. dda mpdtews Kal Blov kal eddaipovias at } Kaxodaipovla év mpdée codd., 
sed alio spectat Arabs (‘sed in operibus et vita. Et <vita> est in @pere’) ; 
unde Margoliouth dda mpdéews cal Blov, <6 5é Blos> év mpdie, qued pre- 
bant Diels, Zeller, Susemihl. Codicum lectionem ita supplet Vahlen, xa 
evdatmovlas <xKal kaxodaimovlas, 7 6é evdaimovla> kal } Kaxodatpovla : 

20. mpdrrovow] mpdrrovras movodow coni. Vahlen ovpraparausdvever 

Guelferbytanus pr. m., Spengel: oupzrepikayBdvovow Ae 26 et 27. . 

Tlo\vyrworov et Todvyvworos A& 28. AéEer kal duavola Vahlen (confirm. 
Arabs): Aéfers kal diavolas codd. 29. od add, apogr. (‘nequaquam’ 
Arabs): om. A®: fort. oddayeés Margoliouth 20. 7 apogr.: 7 A® 36. 
owloragba codd.: suvardva Thurot 



incidents. For Tragedy is an imitati , but 

is. . te . . . oe . 

‘of an action and of life, and life consists in action, and 4, 
nt eB 

. Ad _ . “ 
its end is a mode of action, not a quality. Now1o St 
cape gs At Ne ate r * 

action, therefore, is not with a view to the representation | 

of character: character comes in as subsidiary to the | 

actions. Hence the incidents.and the plot are the end of 

a tragedy; and the end isthe chief thing of.all. Again, 11 

ee ne 

without action there cannot be a tragedy ; there may be 

_ without character. The tragedies of most of our modern 


poets fail in the rendering of character; and of poets in 
general this is often true. It is the same in painting; 
and here lies the difference between Zeuxis and Polygnotus. 
Polygnotus delineates character well: the style of Zeuxis 

is devoid of ethical quality. Again, if you string.12 
together a set of gpeeches expressive of character, and al 
well finished in point of diction and thought, you will \. 
not produce the essential tragic effect nearly so well as é 
with a play which, however deficient in these respects, 
yet has a plot and artistically constructed incidents, 
Besides which, the| most powerful elements of emotional 13 
interest in Tragedy—Peripeteia or Reversal of the ; 

Sifudtion, and Recognition scenes—are parts of the plot!! 
A further proof is, that novices in the art attain to finish 14 
of diction and precision of portraiture before they can 
construct the plot. It is the same with almost all 

the early poets. 
The Plot, then, is the first principle, and, as it were, 

eee eee 

28 VI. 15—19. 1450a 38—1450 b 19 

yodias, Sedtepov Sé Ta On, TapaTAjcloy yap éotiw Kal 15 
n a / a "4 
1450b €rrl THS ypadixs: ef yap Tis évareirere Tois KaddLoTOLS 
iA 4 > xX e / > / \ 
pappdKxos yvdonv, ovK av opoiws evppaverey Kal RevKo- 
/ » Viet 4 4 / / \ \ Vi 
ypadynoas eixovas éotw Te piunows mpdkews kal did TavTnv 
/ a / / \ e 4 a / 
paddwoTa THY TpaTTOvTwY. TpiTtov bé % Sidvoia: TovTO dé 16 
2 \ , , tied ue tee 2 \ \ € , 
sé€oTw TO Aéyew Stvac0at Ta evovTa Kal Ta AppoTToYTa, 
ca) / A n a 
b] / e \ \ > tal an > / , e 
la} ; lal lal al \ 
5é viv pytopixas. éotiv Sé 00s pev TO ToLovTOV 6 Snrot Ti 17 
e a ad A f 4 
Tpoaipecw omroid Tis MWpoatpeitar 7) ever SioTep ovK 
fal / b] 4 n 
10 €yovow 00s THY oywv ev ois ovK Eote Sirov i) ev 
a x e 
ois nd Gdrws éotw 6 TL Tpoatpetrar 4) hevyer oO Aéyor* 
8 f a > 4 Lip e v a 4 > 54 
tdvo.a é, év ols amrodetKVUOUGL TL WS EoTLY 7) OS OVK EOTLY 
/ n 
} xaQorov tt drodaivovta. Ttétaptoy dé TaV AEeyomévwr 1) 18 
/ / Y \ 
AéEiss Aéyw dé, Womep TpoTepov eipyrar, éEw ecivas THY 
\ fe} y / e / A \ $2 % la) > / \ 
15 dua THs dvouacias épunveiav, 6 Kal ért TOV éupéeTpov Kal 
a / \ / an a 
érl TOV AOyov Ever THY adTHy SvVamw. Tv Sé oLTToY 19 
, ¢ / / al e / ¢ \ bf 
[wévre] 2) peAorroia péyiotov Tov HnovopaTav, 7 dé dis 
puyayorytKoy wév, aTexvotaror bé Kal HKiora oiKelov THs TolN- 

TUKAS* <lo>@s yap THs Tpaywdias Stvapis Kal dvev ayavos 

88, mapamdjowv . . . elxdva supra post mpayudrwv v. 31 collocavit Castel- 
vetro. 1450 b 1. &va XelWere AS 3. re codd.: yap Hermann 6. 
ért trav Nbywr secl. M. Schmidt 9-11. droid Tis. . . etyee 6 Aéywr 

Gomperz, alios secutus: dmotd ris (6 ota rls) év ofs otk ort Shirov 7} 
mpoarpetrar  pevyer Submep odk Exovew HOos Trav Adyww év ols und Sws éorw 
& ris (8 Te apogr.) mpoapetrar 7} pevyer 6 Aéywv AC: Orola ris: Sidrep ovK 
éxovow . . . pevyee 6 Aéywv (verbis év ols ovK ear: SHAov 7} mpoatpetrar 7 
gevye. omissis cum Arabe) Margoliouth. Suspicatur Susemihl év ols ovx 
gore. . - F pevyer et év ols und’ Srws Eorw,. . . }) pev-yer duplicem lectionem 
fuisse 11. 7 apogr.: mis Ae 13. Aeyouévwy Gomperz: pev Adywr 
codd.: év \éyw Bywater 17. wévte A: secl. Spengel (confirm, Arabs) : 
mwéurrov apogr. 18. dmrexvwrarov Ac 19, tows Meiser: ws AC: 7 
apogr.; dAws Gomperz 



the soul of a tragedy: Character holds the second place. 
1450b A similar fact is seen in painting. The most beautiful 15 
colours, laid on confusedly, will not give as much pleasure 
as the chalk outline of a portrait. [Thus Tragedy is the 
imitation of an action, and of the agents mainly with a 
view to the action.| 
Third in order is Thought,—that is, the faculty of 16 
saying what is possible and pertinent in given circum- 
stances. In the case of oratory, this is the function of 
the political art and of the art of rhetoric: and so indeed 
the older poets make their characters speak the language 
of civic life; the poets of our time, the language of the 
rhetoricians. Character is that which reveals moral 17 
purpose, showing what kind of things a man chooses or 
avoids. Speeches, therefore, which do not make this 
manifest, or in which the speaker does not choose or 

0 seen arnt Bite maa 

avoid anything whatever, are not expressive of character. 
Thought, on the other hand, is found where something is 
proved to be~or not to be, or a general maxim is 

Fourth among the elements enumerated comes 18 
Diction ; by which I mean, as has been already said, the 
expression of the meaning in words; and its essence is 
the same both in verse and prose. 

Of the remaining elements Song holds the chief place 19 
among the embellishments. ~ . 

The Spectacle has, indeed, an emotional attraction of 
its own, but, of all the parts, it is the least artistic, and 
connected least with the art of poetry. For the power 
of Tragedy, we may be sure, is felt even apart from 
representation and actors. Besides, the production of 


30 VI. 19—VII. 5. 1450 b 20—1451 a4 

AY Se a lg \ / \ 

Qn / A A / a lal lal 

4 a 
VII Atwpicpévav Sé TovTav, Aéyopey peTa TadTa Troiav 
\ al \ , , n a) 
Twa Oe THY TVCTACW elvaL TOV TpaypaTaV, éTEldn TodTO 
5 L an seat EAB na 
kal Tp@Tov Kal péytotov THs Tpaywdlas éotiv. Keitat 52 2 
Cc on \ dL / \ 4 / s , 
25 nuly THY Tpaywdlay Tedelas Kal OAnS Tpdk~ews civar pi- 
> / / 4 \ ee \ \ ” 
now éyovons Te méyeOos: Ext yap drov Kal pndev Exov 
, ra) Pte dé b] \ b) \ \ a \ 3 
peyedos. Odov O€ éoTiv TO Eyov apynv Kal péoov Kal Te- 
/ > \ Ane Ais Bceany \ 2s ae wie ie > 
AeuTHV. apxyn O€ éoTW 6 avdTo pév pn €E avayKns peT 
bla , > n 7 5 ry 
ado éotiv, pet exetvo & Erepov mépuxev eivas 1) yiverOat: 
; , a > 
3o TeAevTn O€ TovvayTiov 6 avTO pet GAO TéduKev eEivat 7) 
\ le) 
é& avdykns 7) @s éml TO TodU, peta Se TOUTO dAXO ovdEér" 
/ A) 77 \ > yn b) ” \ > > n 4 
pécov S€ 0 Kal avTO peT GAO Kal peT Exeivo ETEpor. 
é a \ an 9 / /@? e / »” 
et apa Tovs cuvert@tas eD pvOovs pn omobev etuyev 
wv > n nA nr 
apyecOar punO Srrov érvxe TedeuTay, GAA KexpHaOaL Tals 
4 4 bf \ \ n e 
35 elpnuévars idéats. éTv 0 érrel TO Kadov Kal Eo@ov Kab arapv 4 
A / a / ce) 
mTpayua 0 cuvéoTnKev €K TOV Ov MOVOY TaDTAa TETAypmEVa 
a > \ \ / e / \ \ / \ 
del Eyer GNA Kal péyeBos tTdpyew pn TO TUYOV* TO 
\ \ > £0 \ 4 > / PS) \ + /, 
yap Kanrov év peyéber kal taker éotiv, 610 ovTE TaupeKpoV 
x / Xr0 a6; ( a \ € Q / bd] \ 
av Tu yévouro Kadov Edov (cvyyeitar yap 7 Oewpia éyyds 
A / / 
40 Tod avatcOynTouv ypovou yivopévn), ovTE Tappeyebes (od yap 
> a a Se 
1451a dua 4 Oewpia yiverat aX oixyeTat Tols Oewpodar To ev 
\ \ ef > fol / ® > / / ” 
Kat TO OdXov ex THS Oewpias), olov e¢ pupimy otadior ein 
a 4 al 4 ee | a / \ » P| la) 
foov: wate det Kabatep él TOY cwomaTwY Kal émt TOV 5 

, 54 \ / an \ ? / > ec 
Cowv exyew pev péyeOos, TovTo Sé evavvoTTOY cival, ovVTw 

24. 5) Bywater: 6’ Ae 28. uh € avdyxns codd.: é& dvdykns wh Pazzi 
35. lééars apogr.: eldéars Ac 38. mdupixpoy Riccardianus 16: wav puxpdv 
A®: advv pixpdv Laurentianus lx. 16 40. xpévov secl. Bonitz: tutatur 
Arabs mappeyees Riccardianus 16: wav uéyeOos A®: mdvu péya Lauren- 
tianus lx. 16 1451 a 3. cwudrwr] cvornudrev Bywater 


spectacular effects depends more on the art of the stage 
machinist than on that of the poet. 
VII These principles being established, let us now discuss 
Res the proper structure of the Plot, since this is the first 
and most important thing in Tragedy. 

Now, according to our definition, Tragedy is an2 
imitation of an action that is complete, and whole, and 
of a_certain magnitude; for there may be a whole that 
is wanting in magnitude. A whole is that which has 3 
a beginning, a middle, and an end. A beginning is that | 
which does not itself follow anything by causal necessity, 
but after which something naturally is or comes to be. 
An end, on the contrary, is that which itself naturally 
follows some other thing, either by necessity, or as a rule, 
but has|nothing following it, A middle is that which 
follows something as some other thing follows it. A well 
constructed plot, therefore, must neither begin nor end 
at haphazard, but conform to these principles. 

Again, a beautiful object, whether it be a living 4 
organism or any whole composed of parts, must not 
only have an orderly arrangement of parts, but must 
also be of a certain magnitude; for beauty depends on 
magnitude and order. Hence a very small animal 
organism cannot be beautiful; for the view of it is con- 
fused, the object being seen in an almost imperceptible 
moment of time. Nor, again, can one of vast size be 

1451a beautiful; for as the eye cannot take it all in at once, 
the unity and sense of the whole is lost for the spectator ; 
as for instance if there were one a thousand miles 
long. As, therefore, in the case of animate bodies and 5 
organisms a certain magnitude is necessary, and a magni- 

32 VII. s—VIIl. 3. 1451 a 5—26 

nr a fa) / 
5 Kal ert Tov piOov exe pev pijKos, TodTO Sé evuvnuovev- 
fa) / e a 
Tov €ival. TOD MjKOUS Gpos <o> pev TpPds TOS ayavas Kal 6 
\ yy 0 > nA / > / > a ed e \ 
Thy alcOnow ov THS Téyvns éoTiv. e& yap der ExaTov 
/ Bal / 
tpaywoias aywviferOar, mpos KreYvdpas av jnywviforto, 
e \ \ 
@omep ToTé Kal ddroTE hacw. Oo Sé Kat avThy Thy prow 7 
fa) / ica Pa ®t \ e / / a ¥ 
10 TOD mpdywatos Spos, ael pev o pellwv pexpt Tov cup- 
Sndos elvat KarANov éotl kata TO péyeOos: ws Sé a- 
na , >] ra b] cd / 4 \ a & a 
TAOS Stopicavtas eitreiv, ev bom peyéOer KaTa TO ElKOS 7) 
\ > a > a / / > > / 
TO avayKaiov épeEjs yuyvouevwv ovpPRaiver els evTvytiay 
; | 
14€« Svatvylas } €& edtvylas eis Suotuyiav petaBarreur, 
VIII ixavos Gpos éoriv tod peyéBovs. MidOos 8 éartiv els 
ef s 
ovx womTep Ties olowrar éav rept Eva H* Toda Yap 
\ ” ~ 2% / > = >. Vv OE bd 
Kal dreipa TO évl cupPaiver, €E wv [éviwy] ovdev éotw 
éy- ovtas 8& Kat mpdfes évds Toddat ciow, €& ov 
/ > , / lal \ 4 eS e 
pia ovdepnia yiveras mpakis. 6d mdvTes €oixacw dpap- 2 
F a a e 
20 Tdvelv Ooo. THY TronTav “Hpaxrnida Ononida Kal ta 
a / 
TolavTa Toipata mTerouKaciv* olovTar yap, émel els hv 
a \ 3 / e >of 
6 ‘“Hpaxdijs, éva nal tov pdOov eivar mpocnkev. o 5 “O-3 
\ a> 
pnpos womep Kal Ta adra Siahépe Kal TodT Eouxev Ka- 
a a / > 
Aas idety Hror Sia téeyvnv 7) Siva pvow: Oddoceav yap 
an > b] / ef ¢ > a / 
25 TOL@Y OvK éTroinoey ATravTa boa avT@ ouVveBn, olovy mAn- 

yhvar pev év TO Lapvac@, pavnvar dé tpocroncacbat év 

6. 6 add. Bursian pev mpds A°: mpds wey apogr. 8. Krewsdpay 
apogr. 9. &ddore gacly codd,: &ddor’ elddacw M. Schmidt ; quod olim 
recepi, sed more xal &ddore vix aliud significare potest quam ‘olim 
aliquando.’ Quae in Arabe leguntur (‘sicut solemus dicere etiam aliquo 
tempore et aliquando’), alterutri lectioni subsidio esse possunt 17. 
évt Guelferbytanus: yéver A° (cf. 1447 a 17): To y’ evi Vettori éviwy 
secl. Spengel 18. af ante modal add. apogr. 


tude which may be easily embraced in one view; so in 
the plot, a certain length is necessary, and a_length / 
which can be e easily embraced by the the memory. The 6 - 
limit of length i in relation to dramatic competition and 
sensuous presentment, is no part of artistic theory. For 
had it been the rule for a hundred tragedies to compete 
together, the performance would have been regulated by 
the water-clock,—as indeed we are told was formerly 
done. But the limit as fixed by the nature of the7 
drama itself is this:——the greater the length, the-. 
more beautiful will the piece be by reason of ee bl ‘fe 
size, provided that the whole be perspicuous~~ And ~ 
to define the matter roughly, we may say that the 
proper magnitude is comprised within such limits, that _ 
the sequer sequence ce of events, according to the law of probability 
or necessity, will admit of a change from bad fortune to 
good, or from good fortune to bad. 

vul Unity of plot does not, as some persons think, consist 
in the unity of the hero. For infinitely various are the 
incidents in one man’s life which cannot be reduced to 
unity ; and so, too, there are many actions of one man 
out of which we cannot make one action. Hence the2 
error, as it appears, of all poets who have composed a 

_-Heracleid, a Theseid, or other poems of the kind. They 

imagine that as Heracles was one man, the story of 
Heracles must also be a unity. But Homer, as in all 
else he is of surpassing merit, here too—whether from 
art or natural genius—seems to have happily discerned 
the truth. In composing the Odyssey he did not include 
all the adventures of Odysseus—such as his wound on 

Parnassus, or his feigned madness at the mustering of 

34 VIII. 3—IX. 5. 1451 a 27—1451 b 12 

n “ \ / / Lal 
TO ayepue, @v ovdev Oarépov ryevouévov avayKaiov hv 
A \ a 
n eiKos Odtepov yevéoOat, GAA Tepi piav tpakw oiav 
ré \ "08 4 / € / be \ \ 
éyomev THY vacelav ouvéctncev, opmotws dé Kal THY 
> \ / a + r 
30 Inudda. ypr ody Kabarep Kat év Tals adXrats miNnTiKais 7 pia 4 
/ Ys > ee. \ \ fa] b] \ / / / 
pipnots évos eat OVTw Kal TOV pvOO?, érrel TPdEEews pipnots 
b] a 3 / iA \ / / 
€oTt, mas Te elvat Kal TavTns SANs Kal Ta pépn cuUVerTa- 
a 4 / 
vat TOV TpayLaTov oVTwS MaTE peTaTLOE“EvoU TLVOS MépousS 
) adbatpovpévou SvabéperOas Kal xweicOa TO ddov: 6 yap 
\ x \ \ de TS a Oe / fa) 
35 Mpocov 7) pn) Tpotov poev Trovet é7ridnrov, ovdéV wopLoV TOD 
4 > / 
IX Pavepov Sé éx Tov ecipnuévwvy Kal OTL ov TO Ta 
/ / a a + 5] / 2 > e BN 
yevoueva éyew, TOTO ToinToD épyov éaTiv, GAN ola av 
/ \ \ \ \ ; eS HK A ae al ¢ 
yévoiTo Kal Ta SuvaTa KATA TO ELKOS 7) TO avayKaioV. Oo yap 2 
1451 b e \ Wh de \ > a vr » rE \ » 
toTopiKos Kal Oo ToUNnTHS Ov TO i) EupeTpa Aéyeww 7) ApeTpa 
€ / a 
Siaghépovaow (ein yap av ta “Hpodotov eis pétpa teOjvar, 
\ 2O\ @ x Pi. Ke 4 \ 4 A 4 
Kal ovdev HrTov av ein Lo TOpia TLS META METPOV 1) GvEeV MeTPOV)* 
b \ 4 / a \ \ \ / / 
aXNA TOUT Siahépen, T@ TOV Ev TA yEevomEeva NEEL, 
/ \ 
sTov O¢ ola av yévoito. Sud Kal dirocopwtepov xals 
/ / ; , \ \ iY 
oTovoaloTepoyv Toinaw toTopias éoTivs » ev Yap Toinots 
tal / 4 9 
parrov ta Kaborov, 9 8 iotopia Ta Kal’ ExacTov réyet. 
/ 4 a a # 4 
got dé Ka0orov pév, TO Toim Ta Toia atTa cupPRaiver 4 
lA \ \ x \ a 
eye 7) TPaTTEW KATA TO ELKOS 4 TO avaryKaioV, ov aTO- 
/ ¢ , em) b / \ \ > 
10 yaterar 1) Toinows ovopata émiTiewéevn: TO Sé Kal’ Exa- 
/ \ a 
orov, tt "AdxiBiddns érpakey 7 ri Erabev. ari ev ody THs & 
dé aay a on 4 , \ \ 
Kopodias 5n TovTO SHrov yéyovey* GvoeTHoayTes yap TOV 

28. # add. apogr. 29. déyouey apogr.: Aéyormer AC: Av Aéyouuev Vahlen 
82. xal radvryns] tadrns xat Susemihl 34. diapéperbar] diapbelper ar 
Twining (‘corrumpatur et confundatur’ Arabs): habuit fort. utramque 
lect. & (Margoliouth): fort. diapopetoOa (cf. de Div. 2. 464 b 13) 85. 
moet, érldndov ws apogr. 87. od 7rd apogr. (confirm. Arabs): ofrw A¢ 
38. yevdueva Riccardianus 16: ywdueva cett, 39. kat ra duvard secl. 
Maggi 1451 b 4. roUrw. . . T@ apogr.: ToUro. .. 7 A: roiro... 7d 
Spengel 10. 7d apogr.: rdw AS 


the host—incidents between which there was no necessary 
or probable connexion: but he made the Odyssey, and 
likewise the Iliad, to centre round an action that in our 
sense of the word is one. As therefore, in the other 4 

cat raettd arts, the imitation is one when the object imitated. J 
is one, so the plot, being an imitation of an action, must) 
imitate one action and that a whole, the structural union | 
of the parts being such that, if any one of them is * 
displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed and |} 
disturbed. For a thing whose presence or absence makes” 
no visible difference, is not an organic part of the — 
Ix It is, moreover, evident from what has been said, 
that it is not the function of the poet to relate what 
has happened, but what may happen,—what is possible 
according to the law of probability or necessity. The 2 
1451b poet and the historian differ not by writing in verse or 
in prose. The work of Herodotus might be put into 
verse, and it would still be a species of history, with 
metre no less than without it. The true difference is 
that one relates what has happened, the other what may 
happen. Poetry, therefore, is_a more philosophical and 3 VA 
a higher thing than history: for poetry tends to express 
the universal, history the particular. By the universal 4 
I mean how a person of a certain type will on occasion \. sig 
speak or act, according to the law of probability or 
necessity; and it is this universality at which poetry 
aims in the names she attaches to the personages. The 
particular is—for example—what Alcibiades did or 
suffered. In Comedy this is already apparent: for here 5 
the poet first constructs the plot on the lines of prob- 

36 IX 5—10. 1451 b.13—33 

na \ n ae 2 > \ / FER € 
, \ > e Live \ \ \ > @& 
Geacw, Kat ovx WaTrEp Ot LaBoTroLoL Trept TOV KAO’ ExaaToV 
rn \ A fol an 

15 Towovaow. él dé THs Tpaywdlas TOV yevouévwov OvouaTor 6 
> / + bcd / > \ / A \ 
avTéxovtalt. aitioy & dt miOavoyv éott TO SuvaTov. Ta meV 

S$ \ / + 4 5 A \ \ 
ovV £N YyEevomeva oUTwM TioTEvOpeY civar SuVaTd, Ta OE YE- 
/ \ id / > \ xX > / > 4 > / 
voueva avepov ott Suvatd, ov yap av éyéveTo, ei Hv adv- 
> \ > ag: 3 a / tet \ rN 
vata. ov pm GAA Kal év Tals tpaywdias éviais pev év7 
XK / a / 
20%) dvo TOV yvopiwwv éotiv ovopdtav, Ta b€ GANA TeToLN- 
/ / \ > ? a) 
péva, év éviass dé od’ év, olov év TO AyadOawvos AvOel: opoiws 
4 / / 
yap év TOUT@ Ta TE TPaypaTa Kal Ta dvowaTa TeToOinTaL, Kal 
4 > a 
ovdey ATToOv evppaiver. WoT ov TavTws evar EntnTéov TOV 8 
Sedomeé 90 L ods at dia eiciv, a 
Tapadebopévav pvdwv, tept ods at Tpaymdiat eiciv, avt- 
, \ \ re fal an b] \ \ / 
25 éyecOar. Kal yap yedoiov Tovto CnreEiv, érel Kal TA yro- 
b] f / / b] > > 4 > / / 
pla oduyols yv@piLa éeoTW aGrAX Opme@s evdpaiver TavTas. 
a / e \ \ A a 
SfjAov ovv €K TovTwY OTL TOY TroLNTHY paAXoY TaV pvOwy 9 
> val \ Xx la) / v4 \ \ \ / 
eivat Set TrounTny ) TOV MéTP@V, Go@ TroLNTHS KaTa THY pi- 
Dia. a 2 aan, WEE / RSD a t 
pnotv éotw, pipetrar O€ Tas mpd~eas. Kav dpa cupBn yevo- 
a / an / 

30 eva Troteiv, ovOev ATTOV TroLnTHS ETTL* TOV yap yEevouéeva@v 
4 »>O\ / a % A a \ / \ 
évia ovdev KwAVEL ToLadTa eivat ola ay eEiKos yeverBat Kal 

\ A PA, 8 Cl ay ao) 4 > 
dSuvata yevéoOat, nab 0 éxetvos avTa@y TouTns éoTv. 

tav S€ ddd\ov pvOwv Kal mpadkewv ai émescodi@decs 10 

13. od scripsi (‘nequaquam’ Arabs): ofrw codd. (cf. 1451 a 37) ém- 
TiOéact apogr. 14, rov A®: ray apogr. 16. redavdv Ac 19. & 
ante évias add. apogr. (ceterum cf. Dem. or. iii. 11, xviii. 12) 21. ob8’ &v]} 
ob’ év A®: obOév apogr. olov .... "AvGet] ‘quemadmodum si quis unum esse 
bonum statuit’ Arabs; male Syrus legisse videtur év 7d dyaOdv ds dv OF 
(Margoliouth) ’"AvOet Welcker: dv@e codd, 23. dor’ ob] wo rod 
Ac ov wdvrws elya, si sana sunt, arte cohaerent (cf. odx éxaw elva, 
kara Sbvapuy elvar, Kara Todro elvar) elvac sec]. Spengel : av ef) M. Schmidt 
24. ai <evdoxipotcat> rpaywdiac coni. Vahlen 31. cai duvara yevéo Oa 
secl, Vorlinder: om, Arabs 38. rav dé dd\dwv Tyrwhitt: raév dé ardav 
codd. : dmdws 5 rdv Castelvetro 


ability, and then inserts characteristic names ;—unlike 
the lampooners who write about particular individuals. 
But tragedians still keep to real names, the reason being 6 

| that_what is possible is credible: what has not happened 

we do not at once feel sure to be possible: but what has 

happened is manifestly possible: otherwise it would not 

have happened. Still there are even some tragedies in 7 
which there are only one or two well known names, the rest 

being fictitious. In others, none are well known,—as 

in Agathon’s Antheus, where incidents and names alike 

are fictitious, and yet they give none the less pleasure, 

We must not, therefore, at all costs keep to the received g 
legends, which are the usual subjects of Tragedy. Indeed, oT 
it would be absurd to attempt it; for even subjects that 

are known are known only to a fave, and yet give pleasure 

to all. It clearly follows that the poet or ‘maker’ 9 


should be the maker of plots rather than of verses ; 
since he is a poet because he imitates, and what he 
imitates are actions. “And even if he chances to take 
an historical subject, he is none the less a poet; for 
there is no reason why some events that have actually 
happened should not conform to the} law of the probable 
and possible} and in virtue of that quality in them he is 
their poet or maker. 

Of all plots and actions the epeisodic are the worst. 10 

38 IX. 1o—X. 3. 1451 b 34—1452a 19 

/ ’ a 
eloly yelprotat: Néyw 8 errercodi@dn pdOov ev & Ta éeTrELo- 
/ oo. vy > Dray > lal 
35 Obra poeT GAANAG OUT ElKOS OUT aVayKN elvaL. ToLavTAL 
\ a ete \ A / a > > ; ents 
5é qrovobytat bo pév TOV hatrAwv Tointdy Sv avTovs, Ud 
8e a 5] 60 bY \ \ € / 5] / a 
é Ttav ayadav sia tovs wroKxpitds: aywvicpata yap 
a A / / la) 
ToLouvrTes Kal Tapa THY Svvaui TapateivovTes 0Oov Tod- 
\ n 
us2ardkis Suactpépey avayxavovra, To édpeEhs. rel dé ov 11 
/ / \ nm 
povoy Tédeias éotl mpdk~ews 1) piunows adda Kal poBepov 
ca! a / 
Kal édectvov, TadTa dé yivetat [Kal] wardioTta Stray yévnTras 
\ \ / an b \ 
Tapa THY So€av, Kal waddAov <GTav> St AAAnAa* TO yap Bav- 12 
\ e ¢ ca) x + Pay ae SM fa) bd] / 
5 pacTov ovTws &&eu paddov 7 ef aro Tov avTouaTou Kal 
A / \ n fe) 
THs TUYNS, érel Kal TOY amo TUynS TadTa OavpactMTaTa 
nan e > / / / my € 
Soxel dca wotep érrirndes ghaiverat yeyovévat, olov ws o 
\ e a / / \ a 
avépias o Tob Mirvos év "Apyer aréxtewev roy altiov Tod 
0 4 a Mi. 6 a > , 54 \ \ a 
avatov T® Mitu, Oewpodytse éurrecav Eoixe yap TA TOLadTa 
> >, A / ef > / \ 4 5 ' 
10 OUK eiKH yevécOat: Bate avayKn TovS ToOLOVTOUS elvaL Kad- 
/ / 
Lous pvOous. 
A r f 
x Kiol 8& trav ptOwv of pév amrot of Sé memdeypévor, 
\ \ e cf e / e a) / > ¢ / 
Kal yap al mpdkeus ov pipnoers of pdOot eiow wmdpyov- 
lo) / A cal 
ow ev0ds ovoar ToradTar. Réyw Sé amdny pev mpakw hs 2 
a \ lal 
I5 yuvomevns WoTrEp HpioTat ouvEexovs Kal mas avev TepiTreE- 
Telas 7) avayvwpiopod 4 peTadBacis yivetat, TemrEypEevn 
> 2 \ e > a xX / x > n e 
S éotly fs pera avayvwpiopod 4) wepitrerelas 7) aydhoty 4 
/ / b] n de 8 an / 0 > oA A 
petaBacis éorw. rtadta dé bet yiverOar é& adths Ths ov- 8 

wn Lal / / 
oTdcEws TOD uvOOV, WoTE EK TOY TpoyeyernMévOY Tv PBaivery 

37. bmoxpiras AS (cf. Rhet. iii. 11.1408 b 33) : kpirds apogr. 38. maparel- 
vovres apogr.: maparelvayres A° 1452 a 2. 7 secl. Gomperz 3. 
cal secl. Susemihl 4. cal waddov post Kal wddora codd. : post ddgav 
Reiz (cf. Rhet. iii. 9. 1410 a 21): wat xddd\ov Tucker: cat paddov sive xal 
waduora secl. Spengel: cal waddov ante kal wddiora Richards bray 
add. Reiz 9. pyri AS 17. & éorly fs Susemihl: de Adis AP: 52 ef 
#s Riccardianus 16: 65¢ mpaéis apogr.: dé éorw é& fs (h. e. 6€ “A e&ys) Vahlen 


I call a plot ‘ epeisodic’ in which the episodes or acts suc- 
ceed one another without probable or necessary sequence. 
Bad poets compose such pieces by their own fault, good 
poets, to please the players; for, as they write show 
pieces for competition, they stretch the plot beyond its 

1452a capacity, and are often forced to break the natural con- 

But again, Tragedy_is an imitation not only of a 11> 
complete action, but_of events inspiring fear or_pity. 2 
Such an effect_is best produced when the events come on gee 
us by 8 surprise ; and, the effect is heightened when, at the Cw 
same time, they follow_as cause and effect. The tragic 12 
wonder. will then be greater than if” they happened of 
themselves or by accident ; lfor even coincidences are most 
striking when they have an air of design We may 
instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his 
murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed 


him, Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. 
Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are 
necessarily the best. 

xX Plots are either Simple or Complex, for the actions 
in real life, of which the plots are an imitation, obviously 
show a similar distinction. . An action which is one and 2 
continuous in the sense above defined, I call Simple, when 
the change of fortune takes _place without ‘Reversal, of 
the Situation and without Recbdgnition. * 

A Complex action is one in’ which the change is Se 
accompanied by such Reversal, or by Recognition, sai Fest 

by both. These last should arise from the internal’: 3 

structure of the plot, so that what follows should be the 

40 X. 3—XI. 4. 1452 a 20—1452 b 2 

a a x my. RR Bs / A 
20%) €& avayKxns 7). KaTa TO eiKos yiyverOat TadTa: Svadéper 
yap modv TO yiyverOar tade Sia Tade 4} peta Tdde. 
” \ \ A 
XI Kors 5€ repimréreca pév 4 eis TO évaytiov TOY TpaTTo- 
pévov petaBor, [KaPdrep elpntai,| nat todto Sé womep 
\ A fal 
Aéyouev KATA TO EiKds 1) GvayKaiov: woTep év TO Oidimrods 
25 Mav ws edppavav tov Oidirovy Kal amadddEwv Tod pds 
& / U A 
THhv pyntépa poBov, Snracas ds hv, Tovvavytiov éroincev: 
» Paes 2 a Me \ a A e > / € 
kat ev T@ Avyxet o pév ayopevos ws atrofavovpevos, 0 5é 
Aavads axorovbay ws amoxtevav, Tov pev cuvéBn ex TOR 
4 > a \ \ n > / 
TeTpayyevov amolavety, tov 5é cwOjvar. davayvaptors 2 
; , LA A / > 5) / bd a 
30 6€, @omep Kal Tovvopa onpaiver, éE ayvoias eis yvoow 
petaBors) 1) eis pidiav 7 eis EyOpay Tav mpds evTvyiaV 7 
/ e / / a , ¢ e 
Suctvyiay a@picpévov* Kaddiotn S€ avayvepiots, Stay awa 
mepiTrérevar yivwvTas, olov éyet 4 ev T@ Oidizrods. eioly per 8 
ov Kal GddXav avayvopices: Kal yap pos drvya Kal Ta 
; t oo € a ” , > f 
35 TuyovTa eat ws <b>Tep eipntar cupBaiver, Kal et Té- 
/ an \ / D4 J / b] We / 
Mpaye TLS 1) MN TWEeTpayey EoTLY avayVwpical. AAX 7 pa- 
a / \ e / A / e > 4 
Mota ToD pvOov Kal 4 padiota THs mpdkews 7 eipnuévy 
3 , € \ 4 BJ 4 \ / A Er, 
€oriv' yap TovavTn avayvapiats Kal TepiTréTera 7) Edeov 4 
/ - Ud 
152 b &£e. 7) PoBov, olwy mpdkewv 7 tpaywdia pipnots vrdKerTac: 

” \ \ b] a \ \ i) tal 2. al / 

20. ratra] révayrla Bonitz: ra torepa Gomperz 23. xaOdmep elpyrar secl. 
Zeller: <> xad’ & mpoypyra (deleto commate post ueraBodry) Essen 

31. Post &x@pav add. # dddo 7 Gomperz 32, dua mepirerela Gomperz 
33. ylvovrar A olay Bywater 35. ws Srep Spengel: wowep Ac: — 
80” <&>-7ep Gomperz oupBalver AC: cvpBalvew apogr. 36. 4 
apogr.: el A® 38. kal mepurérea secl. Susemihl kal <pdduor’ édy 
kal> epiréreva 7 édeov coni. Vahlen 1452 b 1. olwy apogr.: ofov Ac 
2. &rt 5é] éretdy Susemih] (commate post bréxerra: posito) 


necessary or probable result of the preceding action. It 
makes all the difference whether any given event is a. 
case of propter hoc or post hoe. | ! 
XI Reversal of the Situation is a change by which yw He 

the action veers round to its opposite, subject always 

to our rule of probability or necessity. Thus in the 
Oedipus, the messenger comes to cheer Oedipus and 
free him from his alarms about his mother, but by 
revealing who he is, he produces the opposite effect. | 
Again in the Lynceus, Lynceus is: being led away to / 
his death, and Danaus goes with him, meaning to slay ; 
him ; but the outcome of the preceding incidents is that 
Danaus is killed and Lynceus saved. 

~ Recognition, as the name indicates, is a change from 2 
ignorance to knowledge, producing*love or hate between 

the persons destined by the poet for good or bad fortune. — 

The best form of recognition is coincident with a Reversal 

of the Situation, as in the Oedipus. There are indeed other 3 

forms. Even inanimate things of the most trivial kind 

may in a sense be objects of recognition. Again, we may 

recognise or discover whether a person has done a thing 

or not. But the recognition which is most intimately | | 

connected with the plot and action is, as we have said, uw 

the recognition of persons. | This recognition, combined 4 | 
1452 b With Reversal, will produce either pity or fear; and actions 

producing these effects are those which, by our definition, 

Tragedy represents.) _ Moreover, it is upon such situations 

that the issues of good or bad fortune will depend. . 

42 XI. 5—XII. 3. 1452 b 3—25 
/ 3 \ ae, Be / a 3 > 4 
oupByoeta.. érel dn 4 avayvepiots TWaV éoTLV avayVapLCols, 5 
e x iA} / \ \ 4 / (4 > a e 
ai pév Oarépov mpos Tov Erepov povor, Stay 7 Sijdos aTEpos 
5 Tis éotw, ore S5é adpudorépovs Sei avayvwpicat, olov 7 
> al fo] 
pev ‘Iduyéveca te 'Opéotn aveyvwpicOn ex Tis Twéurpews 
THs émiotoAHs, éexeivov dé mpos tHv “Iduyéveray addns ebet 
Avo pév obv Tod pvOov wépn rep) TadT éoti, TepuTrétera 6 
+ 2 t / eS) / \ s \ 
10 Kal avaryveptots, Tpirov 5é wabos. [rovT@y dé TepiTréTEra eV 
kab avayvepiors eipntat,| mabos Sé gots mpaéis POaptiKi 7 
> / (/ b] Lad Lal / \ e 
dduynpd, olov of te é€v TO havep@ Oavaror Kal ai Tept- 
wdvviat kal tpw@ces Kal dca ToladTa. 
XII [Mépn 8& tpaywdias ofs pév ws eldeor Set ypioba 
/ v a de \ \ \ > a 8 a 
1s TpoTepoy elmropev, Kata Sé TO Troddy Kal els & SvaspetTar 
Ys a) b , f > / 4 
Keywpiopéva Tade eotiv, mporoyos émetadduoy eEodos yo- 
/ \ vr \ \ , \ \ / \ 
pixov, Kal TovTov TO ev Tadpodos TO Sé oTda wor Koa MeV 
€ / a 18 8a a RY a n \ , 
anavrov tavta, toa Sé Ta amo THS cKNVAS Kal KOppoL. 
gat Se mporoyos pev pépos SAov Tpay@dias TO mpo xopod 2 
20 Tapoddov, émeraoduov dé pépos Grov Tpaypdias TO peTakd 
Sdav xyopixdv perav, e£odos Sé pépos Srov Tpaywdoias 
Pp oA ? 4 A f fa) \ " \ ¢€ 
pe? & ove gott yopod pédos: xopiKod dé mdpodos pev 7 
mpatn réEis OAN Yopov, ordopov Sé pédos Yopod TO avev 
avarraictov Kal tpoyatov, Koppos 5é Ophvos Kowos yopov Kat 

25 <TaV> ama aKnrys. pépn dé tpay@dias obs pwév ws Eider Set 8 

3. éretl 5} Parisinus 2038: ée:dy codd. cett. 4, érepov] éraipov X, ut 
videtur drepos Parisinus 2038, coni. Bernays: repos codd. cett. 

7. éxelvov Bywater: éxelyvw A: éxelvw apogr. 9. mept om. Riccardianus 46 
et, ut videtur, 2 rabr’| ravra Twining 10. rodrwy 6. . . elpnra 
secl. Susemihl: om. Arabs 12. of re apogr.: dre A® 14, totum 
hoc cap. secl. Ritter, recte, ut opinor 17. xowd pev . . . Kbupor del. 
Susemihl © 19. wpoxwpod A® . 23. 5d» Westphal: drov Ao 25. 
trav add. Christ praeeunte Ritter ws eldeor add. apogr. 


Recognition, then, being between persons, it may happen 5 
that one person only is recognised by the other—when 
the latter is already known—or it may be necessary that 
the recognition should be on both sides. Thus Iphigenia 
is revealed to Orestes by the sending of the letter; but 
another act of recognition is required to make Orestes 

wo parts, then, of the Plot—Rever al of the Situation 6 

"eo to Iphigenia. 

and Recognition—turn u pon surprises. A third part is 
the Scene of Suffering. The Scene of Suffering is a 

san ree 

destructive or painful action, such as death on the stage, 
bodily agony, wounds and the like. 

A IRIN sit LS 

XII_~ [The parts of Tragedy which must be treated as 
_~ elements of the whole have been already mentioned. 


We now come to the quantitative parts—the separate 
parts into which Tragedy is divided—namely, Prologue, 
Episode, Exode, Choric song; this last being divided 
into Parode and Stasimon. These are common to all 
plays: peculiar to some are the songs of actors from the 
stage and the Commoi. . 

The Prologue is that entire part of a tragedy which 2° 

precedes the Parode of the Chorus. The Episode is 
that entire part of a tragedy which is between complete 
choric songs. The Exode is that entire part of a tragedy 
which has no choric song after it. Of the Choric part 
the Parode is the first undivided . utterance of the 
Chorus: the Stasimon is a Choric ode without anapaests 
or trochaic tetrameters: the Commos is a joint lamenta- 

tion of Chorus and actors. The parts of Tragedy which 3 

must be treated as elements of the whole have been 

44 XII. 3—XIII. 3. 1452 b 26—1453 a 10 

xpio8a. mporepov eltrapev, kata S€ Td Trocdy Kal eis & 

Svaupeirar Keywpiopéva tadt éoriv.] 

XITI “Ov 8€ det oroydfecOar Kal & Set edrAaBeicOar ovv- 
/ \ / \ / 4 \ a / 4 
iotavtTas Tovs mvOovs Kai Tolev Ectat TO THs Tpaywdias ép- 
30 you, épeEts dv eln Nexréov Tois viv eipnuévors.  émrevd) ovdp 2 
Sei tHv civOcow elvat Ths KaNroTHS Tpaywdias pn) aTAHY 
GNA TeTreypevnv Kal TavTnv poBepav Kal édecwov elvat 
/ A \ by A 4 / > / 
pipntixny (TovTO yap idiov Ths TolwavTns pipHnoews EoTiv), 
n \ A e¢ ” \ > a + Lal 
mp@rov pev Snrov Stu ovTE Tovs érievKels avdpas Sei peTa- 
35 BddXovtas gaiverOar é& edtuyias eis SvoTvytay, ov yap 
poBepov ovd€é édcewvdv TOTO GAAA pLapov éoTiV* OTE Tos 
\ > 3 / > b] / > / \ 
poyOnpods €& aruyias eis evTUyiav, aTpay@doTaToy yap 
TOUT éoTl TavTwY, ovdér yap Eyet wv Sel, oUTE yap PuirdvOpa- 
1453.a Trov ote édeewov ovTE poBepov éoTiv* ovd ad Tov sPodpa 
\ > bf l4 > / / \ \ \ 
movnpop é& evtuyias eis Suotuyiay petamiatew' TO bev yap 
pirdvOpwrrov éyor dv 1) ToavTn cvaTacis ad ovTE deo 
4 / e \ \ \ as WP 4 b] rn 
ovte PoBov, o pev yap epi Tov avdé.oy éoti SvotvyovrTa, 
5 6 5€ mepl Tov Suotov, édeos pev rept Tov avdkvov, PoBos dé 
\ \ e e yw \ v \ 54 \ 
Tepl Tov Spowov, waTE oUTE EdeELVoY OUTE HoBEepoyv Ecrat TO 
a e » Gite 4 4 / »” \ a 
cupBaivov. o petakd dpa tovTwy doves. Eats dé TOLodTOS 3 
e / > A / \ / / \ / 
o pHnte apetn Stadépwv Kali dixavocivy, pyre dia KaKiav 
kat poxOnpiav petaBdrdwv eis tiv Svotvyiav adda Ov 

¢€ / , al > , / ” \ > , 
10 duaptiay Twd, Tov év peyadn Sofn dvTwy Kai evTvyia, 

28. dv Parisinus 2038: ds Ac 1453 a1. ad rév Parisinus 2038: aidrd Ac 
5. 2\eos wey . . . Tdv Suorov secl. Ritter (non confirm, Arabs) 


already mentioned. The quantitative parts—the separate 
parts into which it is divided—are here enumerated. ] Z 

\ 4h 
HA at 

( XIII As the sequel to what has already cob we must — ph S 
proceed to consider what the poet should aim at, and ~ > m 
what he should avoid, in constructing his plots; and by 
what means the specific effect of Tragedy willbe produced. 
_A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen; 2 arranged 2 
imple but on the complex plan. It should, 
Amitate actions which excite pity and fear, this 
being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows 
plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune 
presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man 
brought from prosperity to adversity: for this “moves 
neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. _ Nor, again, 
that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity : 
for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it 

1453a possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies 
the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, 
again, should the downfall of the utter villain be ex- 
hibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy 
the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor( W/E 
fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear 
by the misfortune of a man-like ourselves. Such an ae 
event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. a me’ 9 
There remains, then, the character between these two 3 

ere extremes,—that_of a man who is not. eminently good and 

just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not. by..vice Yv 

or or_ depravity, but by some error.orefrailty. He must 
be one who is _ highly renowned and prosperous, —a 

46 XIII. 3—8. 1453 a 11—35 

N/ \ / e BJ nw / nr 
oiov Oidiqrouvs xkai Ovéotns Kal ot éx TOY ToLOUTaY yevav 
3 a »” > / ¥ \ a ” an 
ériupavels avdpes. avdykn apa Tov Kad@s éyovta pdOov 4 

rn ral a” A 
amXovv elvat paddov 1) SuTrodY, WaTrEp Tivés act, Kal pEeTa- 
/ / 
Barrew ovK ets EVTUX LAV eK Svotuytas QAXa TovvayTiov 

15 €€ edtuxtias es Suvactvylav, wn Sia poxOnpiav adrAa Ov 


apaptiay peyadrnv 7 olov eipntar 7 BedXTiovos paddov 7 
a \ / la) \ 
xelpovos. onpetoy dé Kal TO YyuyVvouevoV' TpwTOV pév yap 5 
\ / / 4 n 
ol Towmtai, Tos TUyovTas pvOovs amrnpiOuour, viv Sé Tept 
9 7 ve e / / / e 
Odiyas oikias al KdAmMoTAL Tpay@diar cuVTiPeyTaL, oto 
b] / . 

20 wept "Adkpéwva Kai Oidimrovv Kai ‘Opéotnv cal Medéaypov 
kat Ovéornv cat Tyrehov Kal Scots addrXrows cupBéByxev 
x 0 al Py < x an € \ 5 \ \ / 

n twabeiy Sewa 1) Toujoa. 1 pev ody KaTa THY TéxvnY 
, , 9 , a , ieee \ \ 
KadrAloTn Tpaypoia ex TaUTHS THS TVTTaTEws EoTL. S10 Kal 
id > / 3 a a> | ee WED 4 / 4 a 
ot Kdpirridn éycarobytes TOUT avTo duaptdavovow, bt’ TodTO 

25 Opa év tais Tpaypdiats Kal ToAdal adtod eis Suctuyiay 

n an ? b] / n 
TedevT@oW. TodTO Yap éoTW waTEp ElpnTat OpPov> oHpEtoV 
dé péyrotov: éml yap TaV oKNVaY Kal TOY ayovev Tpay- 

A x a e 
KoTaTaL ai ToLadTat paivovtat, av KaTopOwbacw, Kai oO 
\ a 
Evpimidns ef kal ta GdrXa pr) €D oiKovoper AAA Tpa- 
, / a a / U4 eho 1 Ul 

30 ylKwOTATOS ye TOV ToLnTay haivetar. Sevtépa 8  Tpw@TH 7 

x, , : eg A > [ / | e 8 A \ / a 

eyouevn Umrd Tiwav éoti [ovaTacis] 7 SuTARY Te THY CVOTA 
4 ek, 

ow éyovoa, Kabdtep 1) ‘Odvaocea, Kal teXevTdoa €& évay- 

n / a ty /, 
tias Tois BeAtiocs Kal yelpoow. Soxel dé elvar mpwTn Sia 

\ n / > / ) a A £ 
Thv Tov Ocatpav acbéveray: axoNovOodet yap ot TroinTal 

b] + A A a 0 a 4 de > ef 
35 KaT EUN1V TOLOVYTES TOLS E€aTals. €OTLW O€ ovx avuTy 8 

11. Oldtrovs apogr.: Slaovs Ac 16. % Bedrlovos AS 19. Kdédd\duorae 
secl, Christ : om. Arabs 20. ’AAxuéwva Bywater (cf. Meisterhans Gramm. 
Att. Inschr. p. 35): ’AAkualwva codd. 24. rotr’ a’rd Thurot: 7d ai’rd 
codd. : atrd Bywater: atrol Reiz: secl. Margoliouth collato Arabe 25. 
<al> moddalt Knebel: fort. woddal <at> Tyrrell 81. cvoracrs secl, 
Twining nn]? AS . 33. BerArhwor AS 34. Oedrpwy A® et X, ut 
videtur (cf. 1449 a 9, Herod. vi; 21 és Sdxpuva @rece 7d Oénrpov, Aristoph. 
Eq. 233 7d yap Oéarpov dektdv) : Gearay Riccardianus 16 

: ) 



personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious 
men of such families. nuny> © 
A well constructed plot: -ghould, therefore, be_ single 4 +: 


in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The ‘ 

| change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, 
reversely, from good) )to bad. It should come about as | 
the result not of vice, but ‘of some great error or frailty, ha 


in a character either such as we have described, or better © 
rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out 5/ 
our view. At first the poets recounted any legend that 
came in their way. Now, the best tragedies are founded 
on the story of a few houses,—on the fortunes of Alcmaeon, 
Oedipus, Orestes, Meleager, Thyestes, Telephus, and those 
others who have done or suffered something terrible. A 
tragedy, then, to be perfect according to the rules of art 
should be of this construction. Hence they are in error 6 
who censure Euripides just because he follows this 
principle in his plays, many of which end unhappily. 
It is, as we have said, the right ending. The best proof 
is that on the stage and in dramatic competition, such 
plays, if well worked out, are the most tragic in effect ; 
and Euripides, faulty though he may be in the general 
management of his subject, yet is felt to be the most 
tragic of the poets. 2 
In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which 7 
some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double 
thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the 
good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because 
of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided 
in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The@ 
pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic 

48 XIII. 8—XIV. 4. 1453 a 36—1453 b 19 

\ , \ \ a n 
<> amo Tpaywdias Sov) GXXA LaAXOV THs KOUMOoLas oiKEia* 
> val \ A KX 4 > > a / b / 
éxel yap of av éyOiaror wow ev TO pq, olov ’Opéarns 
/ A 
kat Aiyiobos, piror yevouevor emt tereuTis é€épyovrar 
eee 2 , > \ ore > / 
Kat aoOvnoKes ovdels br ovdEVOS. 
XIV “Eotiv pév ody To poBepov Kal édecwov éx THs dYrews ryi- 
1453 b 4 \ Yd > A A / lal / 
yverOan, Exri S€é Kai €E adTis THs TveTacEws TOY TpayLaTor, 
<4 bd \ / \ a 3 f ‘al \ Dae 
rep €otl TpoTepov Kal Trointod apeivovos. Set yap Kal avev 
a tia ce / \ a LA \ > / 4 
Tod Opay oUTw cuvvVEerTavaL TOV pOOV, BaTE TOV aKovOVTA TA 
/ / \ / \ al > fa) / 
5 Tpaywata ywopeva Kal ppitrew Kai erect Ex TOV TUupPaLvov- 
e BS 10 > on \ a O7sé fa) 
Tov: amep av abo. tis akovwy Tov Tod Oidizrov pdOov. 
A a / 
To 8é Sid Tis dyrews TovTO mapacKevdlew atexvo- 2 
\ , / / > e \ \ \ 
Tepov Kal yopnylas Seomevov eat. of dé py TO poPe- 
\ } \ a ” > \ ‘\ ay) / , 
pov Sua THs Gews GANA TO TEepaTw@des povoy TapacKeva- 
>O\ , La) > \ lal a 
10 Covres ovdév Tpaywdia Kowwvodow: ov yap Tacay Sel 
a \ / \ 
Cnreiy noovny amo Ttpay@dias adda THY oiKeiay. érrel 528 
A U / an 4 
Thy amo édéov Kat poBov Sia pipnoews Set Hdovnv Trapa- 
, A / \ e lal 3 a , 
oKxevatewy Tov ToinTnVY, pavepov Ws TOUTO eV TOS TPaypma- 
b) j / a § PS de tal > \ / 
ow éutrountéov. ota ovv Sewa i Tota oiKTpa aivetas 
a / / \ XK } s 
I5 TOV oupTiTTOVTaY, AdBopev. avayKkn 6) 7 hirowv ecivar 4 
/ / x a Xx 
mpos aGAAnAoUS Tas TolavTas mpdkes  exOpaVv 7) puNde- 
X / \ \ 
Tépav. adv pev ovv éyOpos éyOpov, ovdev édeewov ote 
a \ ? \ \ b] 
ToL@v oUTE pMéANWV, TANY KAT aUTO TO TaOos: ovd ay 

pndetépws Exovtess Gray 8 ev tais idias eyyévntar ta 

36. <> coni. Vahlen 87. of av Bonitz: ay of codd.: «av of Spengel 
1453 b 4. ovvecravar AS 7. drexvérepov apogr. : drexvwrepov AS 1d. 
57 Spengel: 6é codd. 17. é€xOpdv <dmroxrelyy> Pazzi < poBepoy > 

ovd’ éXecwvov Ueberweg 


pleasure. It is proper rather_to Comedy, where. those 
who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies—like Orestes 
and Aegisthus—quit the stage as friends at the close, 
and no one slays or is slain. 
XIV Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; 4<2..7 
“°° but they may also result from the inner structure of the 
piece, which is the better_way, and indicates a superior 
poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even ak 
without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told ./ 
will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes 4.2/4 
place. This is the impression we should receive from %* 
hearing the story of the Oedipus. But to produce this 2 
effect by the mere spectacle is a less artistic method, 
and dependent on extraneous aids. Those who employ 

spectacular means to create a sense not of the terrible 
but only of the monstrous, are strangers to the purpose 
of Tragedy ; for we must not demand of Tragedy any and 
every kind of pleasure, but only that which is proper 
to it. And since the pleasure which the poet should 
afford is that which comes from pity and fear through 
imitation, it is evident that this quality must be impressed | 
upon the incidents. 

Let us then determine what are the circumstances 
which strike us as terrible or pitiful. 

Actions capable of this effect must. happen between 4 
persons who are either friends or enemies or indifferent 
| to one another. If an enemy kills an enemy, there is 
| nothing to excite pity either in the act or the intention, @ 

—except so far as the suffering in itself is pitiful. So 

| again with indifferent persons. But when the tragic 

incident occurs between those who are near or dear to 

50 XIV. 4—8. 1453 b 20—1454 a 2 

207dOn, olov ef adedpos adeApov % vids tatépa % pnTnp 
\ A ” a 
viov 7) vios pnTépa atroKTeiver % pméArEL 7 TL GAAO TOLOUTOV 
a / \ \ 
dpa, tadra Enrnréov. ods pev ody TapetAnmpévous pvOous 5 
Avew ovK ~oT, Aéyw Sé olov THY KdAvtatunotpay aroba- 
a a > a 
vovoav vTo Tod 'Opéctou kal thy EpipvaAny bird tod ’ANKpé- 
_ ey \ werd tal \ a / a 
25 wvos, avTov o€ evdpicxey Set Kal Tois mapadedopévors yph- 
cla Kad@s. TO Sé Karas Ti réyouer, elrmpev cahécTepor. 
4 \ 
€oTl pev yap ovTw yiverOar Thy Tpakiw, womTeEp of TadaLol 6 
> / 2O/ \ 4 4 \ > / 
érotouv eidotas Kal yuyveoKovtas, Kabdtep Kal Edpimidns 
> f > , \ a \ / 54 \ 
évoinoev atroxTelvovaay Tovs tmatdas Thy Mydeav: gor bé 
a a a f 
go mpakat pév, ayvoodvtas Sé mpaEar To Sewvov, cif’ torepov 
dvayvepica: THY diriav, otep 6 Lohokdéous Oiditrous: Tod- 
To pev ovv Ew Tod Spduatos, év 8 avtn TH Tpaywdia olov 

6 ’Adkxpuéov 6 “Actudduavros 7} 6 TnXéyovos 6 év TH Tpav- 


a a \ 
patia Odvaoce?. ert Sé tpitov Tapa TavTa * * TO péddov- 
35 Ta Tovey Te TOY avnkéotav Sv ayvotay avayvwpica mpl 
Towjoa. Kal Tapa Tada ovK éoTW aGdrdws. 7) yap mpatat 

avayKnn 7} pn Kal eidotas 7} pn eiddTas. TovTwv dé TO per 

, lol \ \ a 4 / \ 
yweoKkovTa pmedAdjoat Kal wn wpGkar yelpictov: TO Te yap 

\ 54 \ > / b \ / / b \ 
puapov eye, Kal ov TpayiKovs amabes yap. SwoTrep ovdels 

lal : / 

14540 Tote? Omolws, eb pt) OdALyaKLS, olov év “Avtiyovyn Tov Kpéovta 
o Aiuav. to 5é mpatau Sedtepov. BédArvov Se TO dyvoodvTa 8 

20. ofov ef Sylburg: olfov 4 codd. 22. dpa apogr.: dpav Ac 23. 
Kdurauhorpay 2: KXvrawyhorpay codd. 24. ’AXxualwvos codd. 26. 
elrwpev apogr. : elmowev AS 33. ’AAxualwy 6 Gryphius : ’AAkualwvos. codd. 
34, rapa Taira, <7d peddAjoa ywwoKovra Kal wh worjoa, Kal réraprov> coni. 
Vahlen 7d Bonitz: rdév codd. 1454 a 2. devrepov] xpdricrov Neid- 
hardt, recte, ut opinor ; 


one another—if, for example, a brother kills, or intends to ¢},. true | 
kill, a brother, a son his father, a mother her son, a son 
his mother, or any other deed of the kind is done—these 
are the situations to be looked for by the poet. He may not 
indeed destroy the framework of the received legends—the 5 
fact, for instance, that Clytemnestra was slain by Orestes 
and Eriphyle by Alemaeon—but he ought to showinvention 
of his own,and skilfully handle the traditional material. Let 
us explain more clearly what is meant by skilful handling, 
The action may be done consciously and with know- 
ledge of the persons, in the manner of the older poets. 
It is thus too that Euripides makes Medea slay her 
children. Or, again, the deed of horror may be done, 
but done in ignorance, and the tie of kinship or friend- 
ship be discovered afterwards. The Oedipus of Sophocles 
is an example. Here, indeed, the incident is outside 
the drama proper; but cases occur where it falls within 
the action of the play: one may cite the Alemaeon of 
Astydamas,or-Telegonus in the Wounded Odysseus, Again, 7 
_ there is a third case,—< to be about to act with knowledge / 
of the persons and then not to act. The fourth case is> V 
when some one is about to do an irreparable deed through 
ignorance, and makes the discovery before it is done. These 
are the only possible ways. or the deed must either be 
done_or not done,—and that wittingly or unwittingly. 
But of all these ways, to be about to act knowing the 
persons, and then not to act, is the worst. It is shocking © 
without being tragic, for no disaster follows. It is, there- 
1454 fore, never, or very rarely, found in poetry. One instance, 
however, is in the Antigone, where Haemon threatens to 
kill Creon. The next and better way is that the deed 8 


52 XIV. 8—XV. 3. 1454 a 3—24 

\ a , 
pev mpaga, mpdEavra Sé dvayvwpicat: TO Te yap papor 
> / \ ¢ 93 , ’ / / \ 
\ ad , / / 
570 Tedevtaiov, Néyw Sé olov ev To Kpechovtn 7 Meporn 
/ \ \ > 
éANEL TOV ViOV aTroKTeivewW, aTroxTeive. 5é OU, GAN av- 
a ? \ / 
eyvopice, Kal ev TH ‘Iduyeveia 7 adeddr Tov adeAdor, Kal 
a cd e \ \ / 
év TH “EAD 0 vids THY pntépa exdidovar péd\roV aveyve- 
pioev. dia yap TovTO, Strep TadraL cipynTal, OV TeEpl TOAAG 
/ . e , > / nw \ > > \ / 

10 yévn al Tpaypdiar ciciv. CntodvTes yap ovK amo TéxVNS 
’ “EA y @ \ a , > a 
GX’ aro Tuyns edpov TO ToLoUTOY TapacKevdlew ev Tols 

/ b / 9 > Poe, 4 \ ee A > a 
pvOos* avayxdfovtar otv éml TavTas Tas olKias aTravTay 
4 a nr 
doais Ta ToradTa ovpBéBnxe maby. epi pev ovv THs 
a \ 3 a \ 
TOV TpayuaToY cvoTdcews Kal Trolovs Tivas elvat Set TOUS 
/ ” e ~ 
15 pvOovs elpyntar ixavas. 
/ a 
XV Ilepi Sé ta 7On tértapd éotw wv Set ctoydlecOau, ev 
\ A A ¢ a 3 e¢ de al \ \ 
peéev Kal mpatov bras ypnota 7H. Eke Se 00s pev cay 
4 , a \ e 4 Es A / t 
watrep €XéyOn tron havepov o Noyos 7 1) TpPaELs mpoatpecw 
\ \ ?\ / ¥ \ > RA 
Twa, xpnotov 5&é éav ypnorny. éoTw Sé ev ExdoTp 
/ \ \ / > \ \ 8 a / 
20yévers Kal yap yurvyn éoti xpnotn Kal Sovddos, Kaitou 
a \ ay / 
ye tows TovTav TO pev yeipov, TO Sé SrAwsS dadAov 
> § 4 Se \ e / aes. ¢ a > 5 a 
éotw. OSevtepov Se TO appoTTovTa’ éoTww yap avdpetov 2 
/ \ A 
pév Te 400s, aX oby appoTTovy yuvatki TO aydpelay 7) 

5 \ 5 / $3 Ar le ~ \ ef n 

4. xpdricrov] Sedrepov Neidhardt, recte, ut opinor 8. “EXXy] ’Avridary 
Valckenaer 18. gavepdy Ald., Bekker 19. rwa Parisinus 2038 : 
Twa y AS: Twa <H Tis Av> 7G coni. Vahlen (? cf. Arab.): <fy>rTwa <d>H 
Bywater: twa 4) <ovyjv> Diintzer: rwa <éxovra, orola tis dv> GF 
Gomperz: Twa, paidrov pév édy paidyn 7 apogr. 22. 7d Vahlen (ed. 1): 
rd codd, 23. 7. 700s Hermann: 76 00s codd. TO apogr.: * * TH 
Ac; otrws Vahlen collato Pol. iii. 4. 1277 b 20. Desunt in Arabe verba 
7T@ dvdpelavy . . . elvat, quorum vicem supplet haec clausula, ‘ne ut appareat 

quidem in ea omnino’ (Margoliouth); unde Diels r@ dvdpelay . . . elvax 
glossema esse arbitratus quod veram lectionem eiecerit. scribendum esse coni. 


should be perpetrated. Still better, that it should be 
perpetrated in ignorance, and the discovery made after- 
wards. There is then nothing to shock us, while the 
discovery produces a startling effect. The last case is the 9 
best, as when in the Cresphontes Merope is about to slay 
her son, but, recognising who he is, spares his life. So 

in the Iphigenia, the sister recognises the brother just in 

time. Again in the Helle, the son recognises the mother » 

when on the point of giving her up. This, then, is why. 
a few families only, as has been already observed, furnish 
the subjects of tragedy. It was not art, but happy 
chance, that led the poets in search of subjects to 
impress the tragic quality upon their plots. They are 
compelled, therefore, to have recourse to those houses 
whose history contains moving incidents like these. 

Enough has now been said concerning the structure 
of the incidents, and the right kind of plot. 

XV . Inrespect of Character there are four things to be 
aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good, 
Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose 
of any kind will be expressive of character: the character . 
will be good if the purpose is good, This rule is relative 

to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a 
slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior 
being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing 2 
to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valour ;. 
but valour in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness, is in- 


appropriate. Thirdly, character must be true to life: for3 — 

54 XV. 3—7. 14544 25—1454b 5, 

\ \ \ / A ‘ 
25 xpnoTov TO 400s Kal apuoTTov Tomcat. woTEp elpyTat. 
/ ¢ / 
tétaptov S& TO Opanrov. KaY yap avepmadds TIS 7 O THY4 
, ef \ A , c 
Bipnow Trapéywv Kat TovovTov 700s broTieis, Suws oma- 
rn al S 
A@s avodpanror Set civar. eotw 5é wapddevypa Tovnpias pev 5 
4 \ , ¢ € tal a 
nOovs pn avayKaiov oiov 0 Mevédaos 0 ev TS “Opéotn, Tod 
be > n \ ap Ue / 4 @ a "08 f > 
30 0€ amperrovs Kal un adppoTtTovTos & Te Ophvos Odvacéas ev 
al 4 n n 
TH XKUrAry Kab 4} Ths Medaviawns phows, Tod S& dvapddov 
/ / a 
n é€v Adnrids “Iduyéveras oddév yap Couey 1 ixeTevovca TH 
tboréoc » 82 ai \i9 tc FO ef Ng , rov 6 
Tépa. ypn O€ Kal év Tois HOeow WoTrep Kal ev TH TOV 
tal a ‘ 
Tpayuatov cvotacer ael Cnteiv 7) TO avayKaiov 7 TO eiKos, 
v4 \ n \ a / x / 2° > al 
Xx tee \ A & a / @ 3? a x oof 
) €lKOs, Kal TODTO peTa TOUTO yiverOaL 4 GvayKaioy 7 EiKds. 
\ a n a a 
davepov ovv Ste Kal Tas AUoas TOV wUO@r éE adTod Se? TODT 
/ , \ \ 4 b a , - SES. 
1454b uv0ov cupBaivew, Kal pn wotep ev TH Madeia aro pn- 
yarns Kat év tH Idedds Ta Tept Tov amroToVY* aA p- 
a 4 + Sie a n / x of \ a 
xavn xpnoréoy éri ta &&w Tod Spdpuatos, 4) boa po TO 
, a > 16 BA 0 be NX A a 
yéyovev & ovy olov Te avOpwrroy eidévat, 7) boa boTEpor, 

5 Seitat mpoaryopevoews Kal ayyediass amavTa yap atrodi- 

Gore pnde palverOar xafdrov: ‘The manly character is indeed sometimes 
found even in a woman (éorw yap dvipetov péev 7rd HOos), but it is not 
appropriate to her, so that it never appears asa general characteristic 
of the sex.’ Sed hoc aliter dicendum fuisse suspicari licet ; itaque Susemihl 
huiusmodi aliquid tentavit, dare unde patvecOa év airy ws érlaray, vel ws 
érlrav elreiv: ‘There is indeed a character (7: 700s) of manly courage, but it 
is not appropriate to a woman, and as a rule is not found in her at all’ 
25. lacunam ante dorep statuit Spengel _—- oep elpynra fort. secluden- 
dum: dep elpnrac Hermann 29. dvaryxaiov Marcianus 215, Bywater: 
dvaykatov A®: dvayxatas Thurot otov secl. E. Miiller 30. <é> 
’Odvccéws Tucker: <6 roj> ’Odvocéws Bywater 31. ZKiAAn TH Oadarrig 
z, ut videtur post fjow exemplum rod dvopoiov intercidisse coni. 
Vettori 85 et 36. 7 Hermann: # codd. 36. <ws> Kal rovro 
olim Bywater 37. Tov ptOwr] rdv. 7Odv ZX, ut videtur 1454 
b 2. dwémrdov Riccardianus 16: dvdrdovw Parisinus 2038, >, ut videtur: 

. atdoby AS 3. éml rad apogr.: @rera Ao 4, oi6y re apogr.: 
olévrar Ac post terepoy distinguit W. R. Hardie, qui dyyeNlas ad Soa 
mpo Tod refert, mpoaryopedcews ad b0a barepor 


this is a distinct thing from goodness and propriety, as here 

described, The fourth point is consistency: for though 4 

the subject of the imitation, who suggested the type, 

be inconsistent, still he must be consistently inconsistent. 

As an example of motiveless degradation of character, we ix; 
have Menelaus in the Orestes: of character indecorous 7 # 7 
and inappropriate, the lament of Odysseus in the Scylla, 

and the speech of Melanippe: of inconsistency, the 
Iphigenia at Aulis,—for Iphigenia the suppliant in no 

way resembles her later self. 

As in the structure of the plot, so too in the por- 6 

traiture of character, the poet should _alwa im_either 
at the necessary or the probable. Thus a person of a 

given character should speak or act in a given way, by 

the rule either of necessity or of probability; just as 
this event should follow that. by necessary or probable 
sequence. It is therefore evident that the unravelling 7 
of the plot, no less than the complication, must arise out 
1454b of the plot itself, it baile not be brought about by the 
Deus ex Machina—as in the Medea, or in the Return of 
the Greeks in the Iliad. The Deus ex Machina should 20 «+ 


be employed only for events external to the drama,— 4,. &«- 

Ny DY Aes ey 
for antecedent or subsequent events, which lie beyond. 

Co A “2X4 

the range of human knowledge, and which require to be 

ag Be Teg Ef . >hae kt Pr srr deustlo fs aA 
a pare ye ae ah eee es 

b> ‘ A, 

Ee Pare cae 

56 XV. 7—XVI. 3. 1454 b 6—27 

Souev tois Ocois opav. aroyov Sé pnd€ev eivas ev Tois mpa- 
qypaow, e¢ Se py, Ew ths tpayodias, olov To &v TO 
Oidimed: 7H odorous. erred Sé piwnais ect 4 Tpayo- 8 
Sia Bertiovey <7) Kal’> Hyas, Set pipetcOar Tors ayabods 
10 etxovoypadous* Kal yap éxeivoe atrodidovtes THy idiav woppny 
opolous Trovovyres KaAXLoUS ypddovewy* obTw Kal TOY TOLNTHY 
Hupovpevoy Kal dpyidous Kal padvdpous Kal TaAXAA Ta TOLAdTa 
éyovtas éml tov Ody, ToLovToUs dvTas érvevKeis Trovety 
[wapddevrypa oxdnporntos], olov rov “AxirAdéa ’Aydbov cal 
15"Opnpos. tadra 8) <dt> Siarnpety kal mpds TovTous Tas 9 
mapa Ta €& avayKns aKkorovGovcas aicOynoers TH TOLNTLKT * 
Kal yap Kat avtas éoTw dpaptdvew trodndaxKis* elpyntat 

de \ > A b] A > 8 5 / / e an 

XVI "Avayvapiois Sé Ti pév éotiv, elpntar mporepov: eldn 
de > / , \ e > , Ee. / 
20 6€ dvayvwpicews, TpwTH Mev 4 aTeyVvoTaTH Kal H TrEloTH 
A § > 9 , € 8 a n / dee de \ \ 
xpavra S: atropiav, » Sua TOY onpeiwv. TovTwy Sé TA MEV 2 
avpputa, olov “rdoyxnv iv hopodor Inyeveis” 7 aorépas 
~ > sive (3) f 4 \ LF \ / 
olovs év t@ Ovéotn Kapkivos, ra Sé erixtnta, Kal TovT@y 
a r 
Ta pev ev TH Twpatt, olov ovrAai, TA 5é éxTOS, TA TeEpt- 
25 Sépava Kal olov év tH Tupot dua ris oxddyns. eorw Sé Kal 
a a 1-) | 
TovTows yxphobar 7) Bédtiov % xelpov, olov Obdvoceds dua 3 

THS OVARS AAdwsS aveyvwpicOn 1rd THs Tpopod Kal adAdws 

7. 7d A° (? rw pr. A): 7d vel 7 apogr.: ra Ald. 9. } xaé’ add. Stahr 
(confirm. Arabs) 14, wapddevryua oxdnpdrnros secl. Bywater: olov ante 
mapdbeypua ponit Tucker dyd0wv apogr.: ayabav A& 15. 5% de? Ald. : 
6m A®: det apogr. Tas mapa Ta Vel Ta mapa Tas apogr.: Tas mapa Tas 
Ae 20. 7 wrelarn apogr.: mdelorn AS. 21. napogr.: 4 AS 22. 
aorépes Richards 24. mepidépaa apogr. pauca : mepidéppea A® 25. olov 
apogr.: of Ac oxdgpys] ord@ns 2, ut videtur, ‘ensis’ Arabs; (R. Ellis) 

26, <é> ’Odvoceds Bywater 


reported or foretold ; for to the gods we ascribe the power 
of seeing all things. Within the action there must be 
nothing irrational. If the irrational cannot be excluded, 
it should be outside the scope of the tragedy. Such is ; 
the irrational element in the Oedipus of Sophocles. | 

Again, since Tragedy is an imitation of persons who 8 ie 
are above the common level, the example of good portrait- 
painters should be followed. They, while reproducing _, 
the distinctive form of the original, make a likeness 
which is true to life and yet more beautiful. So too —— 
the poet, in representing men who are irascible or ~ 
indolent, or have other defects of character, should 
preserve the type and yet ennoble it. In this way 
Achilles is portrayed by Agathon and Homer. 

These then are rules the poet should observe. Nor 9 
should he neglect those appeals to the senses, which, 
though not among the essentials, are the concomitants of 
poetry; for here too there is much room for error. But 
of this enough has been said in our published treatises. 

XVI What Recognition is has been already explained. 
We will now enumerate its kinds. 
First, the least artistic form, which, from poverty of 

wit, is most commonly employed—recognition by signs. 
Of these some are congenital,—such as ‘the spear which 2 
the earth-born race bear on their bodies,’ or the stars 
introduced by Carcinus in his Thyestes. Others are 
acquired after birth; and of these some are bodily marks, 
as scars; some external tokens, as necklaces, or the little 
ark in the Tyro by which the discovery is effected. Even 3 
these admit of more or less skilful treatment. Thus in 
the recognition of Odysseus by his scar, the discovery is 

58 XVI. 3—6. 1454.b 28—1455 a 11 
€ \ A nr >. 4 \ e \ /, ev. > / 
imo tov cvBoTdy: eict yap ai pev Tiatews EveKa aTexVO- 
\ e ~ fal e \ > / ¢ 
TEpal, Kal al TovavTaL Tacat, ai 5é éx TepiTeTeias, wo- 
a / 
30 rep % év tots Nimrpois, BeAtiovs. Sevrepar dé ai memoun- 
/ st EAS, na a 8 oO oe t 0 / > a 
pévat UT TOV ToinTov, d16 ateyvor. olov Opéatns év TH 
/ , fol 
‘I duyeveta aveyvopicev btt ‘Opéotns: éxeivn pev yap Sia THs 
émrurToAs, exeivos S¢ avTos Aéyet & BovAeTaL O TroLNTIS GAN 
b] e 50 ; 8 ee / n > / e / > / Jen 
ovy 0 wvOos: S10 éyyvs Te THs elpnwévns dpaptias éotiv, éEhv 
\ x 4 > a b) a / an ¢ 
35 yap av éua Kal éveyneiv. Kal év Td Yohoxréous Tpel 7 
THS KepKidos hovn.  Tpitn Sia pvnuns, TA aicbécOar 
, a 
1455a TL dOovta, wotrep » év Kumpiois tots Avxatoyévous: id@v yap 
Thy ypadyy Exravcev: Kat 7) év AXkivov. atrodoyp* akovov 
\ n 0 fa! \ ‘ 25 / 50 > 
yap Tov KiOapictod Kal prvnobeis eddxpvcer, BOev aveyvo- 
picOncav. retaptn 8é 1) éx cvAXoyLopod, olov év Xonpdpors, 
5 Ott Guouds Tis €ArjAvOEV, Gwotos Sé ovMels GAN 7 0 Opéotns, 
ovTos dpa édnrvOev. Kal} Tlodvidou rob cogucrod trepi Tis 
Iguyevelas* eixos yap tov "Opéotny cvrAdoyicacbat ort } 7 
aderpyn érv0n kal adt@ cupBaiver OvecOar. Kal ev To 
fad / 
Bcodéxtov Tvde?, bt. eAOwv ws evpHowy vidv avdTos a7od- 
a a / 
10 AvTaL. Kal} év Tos Diveidais. idodoat yap TOY TOTOY cUP- 

f \ e 4 ¢ b / / > ra) al 

31. ofoy <d> Bywater ’Opéorns secl. Diels (confirmante fort. Arabe) 
32. dveyvwpicbn Spengel 84. dd éyyds te Vahlen: &’ dru éyyds AS: 
66 te eyyis Bywater 35. alia 2 legisse videtur, ‘haec sunt in eo 

quod dixit Sophocles se audiisse vocem radii contempti’ (Arabs); unde 
W. R. Hardie coni. roairn 8 4% &v re [Lopoxdéovs ?] Typet *‘7Hs dvavddov,” 
gnot, ‘* xepxldos puviv kriw” 36. 4 tplrn Spengel: #rou ry A®: tpirn 7 
apogr, alcbecbal Ac 1455 a 1. rots apogr.: ris A® 2. dronbyw 
Parisinus 2038 : dd Adywr AS 4, Xonddpoas Vettori: xAonpdpas A& 
6. ILodvidov Tyrwhitt : wodveldou apogr, : modveldous A® 10. Piveldacs 
Reiz: givldaus codd, 


made in one way by the nurse, in another by the swine- 
herds. The use of tokens for the express purpose of proof 

—and, indeed, any formal proof with or without tokens ' 

—is a less artistic mode of recognition. A better kind 
is that which comes about by a turn of incident, as in 
the Bath Scene in the Odyssey. 

Next come the recognitions invented at will by the 4 

poet, and on that account wanting in art. For example, 

Orestes in the Iphigenia - eels the fact that he is 
Orestes. She, indeed, makes herself known by the letter; 
but he, by speaking himself, and saying what the poet, 
not what the plot requires. This, therefore, is nearly 
allied to the fault above mentioned :—for Orestes might 
as well have brought tokens with him. Another similar 
instance is the ‘voice of the shuttle’ in the Tereus of 
4 ie 

he third kind depends on memory when the sight of 5 yo 

i a nis fei as in the Oyprians of 
Dicaeogenes, where the hero breaks into tears on seeing 
the picture; or again in the ‘Lay of Alcinous, where 
Odysseus, hearing the minstrel play the lyre, recalls the 
past and weeps; and hence the recognition. 

The fourth kind is by process of reasoning. Thus in 6 

the Choéphori:—‘Some one resembling me has come: 
no one resembles me but Orestes: therefore Orestes has 
come.’ Such too is the discovery made by Iphigenia 
in the play of Polyidus the Sophist. It was a natural 
reflexion for Orestes to make, ‘So I too must die at the 
altar like my sister.” So, again, ,in the Tydeus of 

Theodectes, the father says, ‘I came to find my son, and — 

I lose my own life. So too in the Phineidae: the 
women, on seeing the place, inferred their fate :—‘ Here 

V7 Pe 

60 XVI. 6—XVII. 2. 1455 a 12—30 

avtais, kal yap é€eréOnoav évtadOa. éorw Sé Tis Kal ouv-7 
Ger? ék Taparoyicpod Tod Barépov, olov év To 'Odvacet TS 
wevdayyér@: 0 wey yap TO Toko pn * * * yvooerOar d 
> e 4 \ be e 57 > / > an P) \ 4 
15 ovy éwpdxer, TO 5é ws 87 éxeivou advayvwpiodvTos Sua TovTOU 
ToujoaL, Taparoyicpos. Tacav dé BerTiacTy avayvapicts 7 eE 8 
avTav TOV Tpayudtav THs éxTrAHEews yoyvouévyns Ov eiKo- 
tov, olov [6] év To Lopoxréous Oidizrods Kal tH Iduyevela: 
> \ \ , > a , . \ a 
etKos yap Bovreobar érrileivar ypadppata. at yap TovadTat 
/ a 
20 povat avev TaV TeTonpévav onpeiwov Kal Sepaiwv. Sev- 
Tepat b€ al é€x osvdAdOYLCpOD. 
XVII Aci dé tovs pvOous cumortdvar Kal TH rAéECL ovvaT- 
/ iid / |). a J / / e/ \ 
epyaveoOa Sti paddiota Tpo dupatwv TLOépevov: oUTw yap 
fal a / a 
adv évapyéotata [0] opay @omep Trap avTois yuyvopevos Tots 
25 MpaTTouevols evpioKoL TO TpéTov Kal HKicTa dv avOdvor 
€ / a \ / & 33 A , 
Ta vrevaytia. onpetoy 5é TovTov 0 émeTiysato Kapkive: 
n A e a 
o yap “Audidpaos é€& iepod ave, 0 pn opavTa [Tov 
Beatnv] érdvOavev, émt 8é rhs oxnvins é€érrecey Svcyxepa- 
vavtov tovTo Tov Ocatav. bea Sé dvvarov Kal Tois oy1)- 
y. \ a a 
30 wacw ocvvatrepyalopevov. miOavatator yap ato THs avThs 2 

18. Oarépov Bursian, praeeunte Hermann: Oedrpov codd. 14-16. 6 perv 
yap... mapadoyiopés] multo plura hic legisse videtur Arabs (Margoliouth) ; 
post py lacunam indicavi; vide quae supra in versione addidi, Arabem 
quoad potui secutus 14. 6 pév apogr.: 7d wey AS 7d ante réfov om. 
apogr, 15. 6 Tyrwhitt: 6: codd. 16. movfoat codd.: érolnce Ald. 
mapadoyiouos Riccardianus 46, Vahlen (confirm. Arabs): mapadoyopdry 
codd. 17. éxmdyfews apogr.: mrantews AC THs éxmAncews . . . elkdTwv 
om. Arabs elkdvrwv Ac 18. 6 secl. Vahlen: 7d Bywater: 6 Tucker: 
 apogr. pauca 19-20. ai yap rovatrar . . . wepidepaiwy secl. Gomperz 
20. depalwy apogr. corr.: dépewy A: mepidepalwy apogr. pauca onelwv 
kal Sepatwy secl. Tucker, fort. recte 24, évapyécrara apogr.: évepyéorara 
Ac 6 om. Parisinus 2038 25. AavOdvo 7d A: AavOdvorro apogr. 
plura (ro deletum est in nonnullis) éreriyaro marg. Riccardiani 16: 
émiTima Tt A® (cf. 1462 a 10) 27. dvyec Guelferbytanus (confirm. Arabs) : 
av eln Ac 6pGvra codd.: dpdv7’ dv Vahlen 27-28. rdv Oearhy seclusi 
(cf. Rhet. i. 2, 1858 a 8 rods dxpoards in textum irrepsit): rdv rownrhy Dacier 
wh dpGvr’ airév [@earhvy] Gomperz, emendationis meae, credo, inscius 
80. dwd rijs adrijs codd. (confirmare videtur Arabs): dm’ a’rfs ris Tyrwhitt 


we are doomed to die, for here we were cast forth.’ 
Again, there is a composite kind of recognition involving 7 
false inference on the part of one of the characters, as in 
the Odysseus Disguised as a Messenger. A said <that 
no one else was able to bend the bow; ... hence B 
(the disguised Odysseus) imagined that A would> 
recognise the bow which, in fact, he had not seen; and 
to bring about a recognition by this means—the expecta- 
tion that A would recognise the bow—is false inference. 
Ct But, of all recognitions, the best is that which arises 8 

from the incidents themselves, where the startling dis- v 

_ covery is made by natural means. Such is that in the 

Oedipus of Sophocles, es, and in the Iphigenia; for it was. 
natural that Iphigenia should wish to dispatch a letter. 
Fae recognitions alone dispense wi Ath the artificial aid 
> tokens or amulets. Next comé-the recognitions by 
process of reasonin g. | 
XVII In constructing the plot and working it out with 
the proper diction, the poet should place the scene, © 
as far as possible, before his eyes. In this way, seeing 
everything with the utmost vividness, as if he were a 
spectator of the action, he will discover what is in keeping 
with it, and be most unlikely to overlook inconsistencies. 

The need of such a rule is shown by the fault found in 
Carcinus. Amphiaraus was on his way from the temple. 
This fact escaped the observation of one who did not see 
the situation. On the stage, however, the piece failed, 
the audience being offended at the oversight. | 
Again, the poet should work out his play, to the 
best of his power, with appropriate gestures; for 2 

62 XVII. 2—5. 1455 a 31—1455 b 16 

hicews oi év Tois TaOEciv ciow Kai yeLpmaiver 0 yetwalomevos 
Kal yarerraiver 0 opyelopevos adnOworata. 810 evpvods 7) 
4, 3 xX a /, \ e \ A e \ 


1455 b Oe? Kal avTov TrovovyTa éxTlOecOat KaOOXODV, E10 ovTaS érrEeLC- 
odvovy Kai trapateive. éyw d€ ob rws av Oewpeic Aan 76 Kad- 
rou, olov THs “Iduyevetas: Tubcions Tiwds Kopns Kal ada- 
uaobeions adnrws Ttois Ovcacw, iSpuvOetans dé els GAY 

, 5] &e / 5 \ / 4 A aA / »” 

5 X@pay, ev } vomos Hv Tovs Eévous Ove TH Oe@ TavTHy oye 
Thy iepwotvny: xpove S& baTepoy TO AdEAGO ovvéBn éOciv 
THS lepelas (TO dé StL aveirev O Oeds Sid Twva aitiav, Ew Tod 
xaorov [érOeiv exci], cal ep’ 6 te 5é, EEw Tod pOov). eAOwv 
dé kal AndOels OvecOar pédrArwv aveyvopicer, lf ws Kvpr- 

e \ \ \ 
10 Widns €l0’ ws TloAvtdos erroinoev, Kata TO eiKdS EiTr@Y OTL 

/ \ 4 n 
ovK dpa povov Thy adeAPHY GAA Kal adbrov ee TvOAvat, 
fa! an \ / \ 
kal évtedOev ) cwtnpia. peta tavta Sé HOn brrobévta Ta 4 
eZ 3 a e ” > tal \ ’ , 
ovouata émrevcodlody: Gras bé éotas oiKela Ta emrevoodua, 

olov év td "Opéotn % pavia & as eAndOn Kal  co- 


in TnOpLa OLA TH bdpoe ty wey ovv Tots Spauaciw Ta 
sTnpla Sia ths Kabdpoews. ev pev ovv Tots Spd 

/ / / Ud n 

33. duplicem lect. edracro: et drdacro habuisse videtur = (Diels) 34. 
éxoratixol Riccardianus 46 (confirm. Arabs, vid. Margoliouth, Class. Rev. 
xv. 54): éferagrixol codd. cett. tous Te vel rovrous Te Tos apogr. : 
rovrous Te A°, sed ne Graece quidem dicitur mapeAnupévous coni. Vahlen 
1455 b 2. éwe:codtov A® maparelvew Riccardianus 46, Vettori: mepirelvew 
codd. 7-8. secludendum videtur aut é\Gciv éxe? (Bekker ed. 3) aut @éw 
Tod Ka0édou (Diintzer) 8. xa0ddov] fort. wiov Vahlen pvOov] fort. 
xa0ddov Vahlen 9. dveyvwplobn M. Schmidt 10. TloAvedos codd, 
(cf. 1455 a 6) 15. dpduact (vel dopact) apogr.: dpuaciw Ae 


those who feel emotion are most convincing through 
natural sympathy with the characters they represent; 
and one who is agitated storms, one who is angry rages, 
with the most life-like reality. implies 
either a happy gift of nature or a strain-of madness. In 
the one case a man can take the mould of any character ; 
in the other, he is lifted out of his proper self. 

As for the story, whether the poet takes it ready 3 

1455 » Made or constructs it for himself, he should first sketch 
its general outline, and then fill in the episodes and 
amplify in detail. The general plan may be illustrated by 
the Iphigenia. A young girl is sacrificed ; she disappears 
mysteriously from the eyes of those who sacrificed her ; 
she is transported to another country, where the custom is 
to offer up all strangers to the goddess. To this ministry 
she is appointed. Some time later her own brother 
chances to arrive. The fact that the oracle for some reason 
ordered him to go there, is outside the general plan of 
the play. The purpose, again, of his coming is outside the 
action proper. However, he comes, he is seized, and, when 
on the point of being sacrificed, reveals who he is. The 
mode of recognition may be either that of Euripides or of 
Polyidus, in whose play he exclaims very naturally :— 
‘So it was not my sister only, but I too, who was doomed 
to be sacrificed’; and by that remark he is saved. 

After this, the names being once given, it remains 4 
to fill in the episodes. We must see that they are 
relevant to the action. In the case of Orestes, for 
example, there is the madness which led to his capture, 
and his deliverance by means of the purificatory rite. 
In the drama, the episodes are short, but it is these that 5 

64 XVII. 5—XVIII. 2. 1455 b 17—34 

/ co) 
yap ‘Osvccelas <od> paxpos 0 NOyos éotiv: dmrodnuodvyTos 
Tivos éTn TOAAa Kal TapaduAaTTopEevou Ud ToD Tlocedavos 

\ / ¥ 4 \ Lal ¥ e > / ef / 
Kal wovou dvTos, ért dé Tav oiKoL OUTMS ExOVTMY HaTE TA YPN- 
e \ / > / \ eX > 
20 waTa UTO pynoTHpwev avadicKxecOar Kal Tov vidv émuBov- 
rNever Oar, adtos Sé adixveirar yepacbels Kal avayvwpicas 
\ >. > / ee \ b , \ ’ > \ 
Twas avTos émBéuevos avTos péev €o@On Tors 8 éyOpods 
SuébOerpe. TO pev ovdv iiov Todo, Ta § addr errevoddva. 
XVIII “Kors 5é raons tpaywdias To peév Séous TO SE Adous, TA 
25 mev e&wOev Kal era trav Ecwbev TroddAgAKIs % Séows, TO 
dé Aourov 7 Avots. Aéyw Se Séow péev elvar tHv am’ ap- 
nr / / le! / a / > b] e / 
XS Méxpl TovVTOU TOU pépous 6 ExyaTov éotuv eF ob} peTaPBai- 
> > / A > > / / 4 \ \ 
vew eis evTuylay } eis atuylay <cupBaiver>, Avow Se THY 
Aes. ip] b a a / / Us ¢ > 
aro Ths apyns Ths petaBdcews péypt TédXous: wWoTrep év 
a a iad / , \ / / 
307 Avyxed T@ Oeodéxrov Séois pév TA TE TpoTEeTpaypéva 
kal 7 Tod Tadiov Amis Kal Tadw FH adtrav 8) * *F 
AVows & % aro THS aitidcews Tod Oavdtov péypt Tod 
tédous. * * Tpaywdias Sé elbn eiol récoapa, [TocadTa yap 2 
kal Ta pépn ede On,]  pev TeTreypEry, Hs TO drov éotly 

17. o} add. Vulcanius (confirm. Arabs) MaKpds A°: puKpds apogr. 19. 
ér: Riccardianus 16, 2: éwei A° 21. dé codd.: 6% coni. Vahlen 22. 
twas avrds codd.: 8 a’rés coni. Bywater: twas airds olim seclusi: at’rés 
secl. Spengel. Codicum lectionem stabilivit Vahlen (1898) citato Diodoro 
Siculo iv. 59. 6 rdv Alyéa did rdv cumBbrwv aveyropirev: simili fortasse sensu 
Plutarch, Vit. Thes. ch. xii cvvayayav rods roNiras éyvwmpiver 25. toh- 
Adis post €EwGev collocavit Ueberweg : codd. lect. confirm. Arabs 28. els 
edruxtay } els druxlay OP: els edruxlay codd. cett.: els edrvxlay <ék duvoruyxtas 
cupBalver } é& ebruxias els Svorvxtay > coni. Vahlen: <els duoruxlay cupBalver 
H> els edrvxlay Gomperz 30. Avyxe? apogr.: AuKe? A® 31. 57 Ac: 
5) <dmraywy},> coni. Vahlen: 54<dwois,> Christ (‘et ea quae patefecit’ 
Arabs) 82. Avows 5é % Parisinus 2038, coni. Vahlen: om. cett. (‘solutio 
autem est quod fiebat’ Arabs) rod Gavdrov: fort. rod Aavaod (Vahlen 
et Spengel) rob ré\ovs] huc transferenda quae leguntur 1456 a 
7-10 dixacov—xpareicOa: (Susemihl) 33. rooaira yap—édéx4y secl. Susemihl 
ed. 1 34. xal ra wépn AS: xara wépn Heine: kat ra wiOwv Tyrwhitt : 
kal ra ptOov Susemihl h pev <amwd\h % Sé> Zeller (Vahlen post 
dvayvispiors 85 <4 dé drdH> cum definitione deesse suspicatur) 


give extension to Epic poetry. Thus the story of the 
Odyssey can be stated briefly. A certain man is absent 
from home for many years; he is jealously watched by 
Poseidon, and left desolate. Meanwhile his home is in 
a wretched plight—suitors are wasting his substance and 
plotting against his son. At length, tempest-tost, he him- 
self arrives; he makes certain persons acquainted with 
him; he attacks the suitors with his own hand, and is 
himself preserved while he destroys them. This is the 
essence of the plot; the rest is episode. 

XVIII Every tragedy falls into two parts,—Complication 
and Unravelling or Dénowement. Incidents extraneous 
to the action are frequently combined with a portion of + 
the action proper, to form the Complication; the rest is 
the Unravelling. By the Complication I mean all that 
extends from the beginning of the action to the part 
which marks the turning-point to good or bad fortune. 
The Unravelling is that which extends from the 
beginning of the change to the end. Thus, in the 
Lynceus of Theodectes, the Complication consists of the 
incidents presupposed in the drama, the seizure of the 
child, and then again « * <The Unravelling> extends 
from the accusation of murder to the end. _— 

There are four kinds of Tragedy, the Complex, depend- 2 

ing entirely on Reversal of the Situation and Recognition ; 


66 XVIII. 2—5. 1455 b 35—1456 a 18 

35 wepiTréteta Kal avayvepiots, » dé TaOnTiKH, olov of Te Aiav- 
1456a Tes Kal ci TEloves, 4 S5é HOcKH, olov ai PO.wrides Kal 6 
IInrevs. oO dé réraptov <7) aTAn> * * tons t olov al te 
Popxides cal Upounbeds wal dca év ddov. pdadora pev odv 3 
¢ n n »” >’ \ / \ / \ val 
amavra Set weipacbat Eyew, et S€ py, TA peyioTa Kal Tei- 
by ee 3 n a \ 4 
5 oTa, d\Xws Te Kal WS VOY cUKOpaYTODGLY TOS TroLNTaS* YE- 
yovotwv yap al?’ ExacTov pépos ayabav rounTav, éxdoTou TOD 
idiov ayabod akbar Tov &va brepBarrew. Sixavov dé Kal 
Tpay@diav adAnv Kal Thy adrny Aéyewv ovdev<l> tows <@s> 
TO pvO@: TodTO Sé, OY} avTH TAOK) Kal AVoLS. ToAXAOL dé 
10 WAEEavTEs ED AVovot Kax@s Se= Se dudhw adel Kpareiobas. 
xp 5é Orep elpntat TodAdKis pepvncOar Kal 2) Toteiy érro- 4 
Toukoy ctoTna Tpaywdtay (érorouKoy 5é Aéyw TO ToAv- 
Hu@ov), olov ef Tus Tov THs Idvddos SAov cool poOov. exet 
\ \ \ \ n / \ , \ / / 
pev yap Sia TO pijKos NapRaver Ta épyn TO TpétTroy péyeBos, 

a / 
15 €v O€ Tols Spduact TON Tapa THY UTOANY LY atTroBaiver. on- 5 


clov dé, Ocoe trépow Idiov 6Anv erroincay Kal wn KATA Méepos 
ye n p 

domep Kipiridns, <i> NudBnv nal py dotep Aicydros, 

Eee / x a > , > \ } >A 10. > 
i) EXTLTTOVOW 7) KAK@S aywvifovTat, éTEl Ka yabov ¢&- 

1456 a 2. 7 awd add. Susemihl post 7 arf nonnulla intercidisse puto 

7d 6¢ réraprov dns AC: 7d dé réraprov dis (cf. ad 1458 a 6) Bywater, recte, 
nisi fallor, quod ad és attinet, sed ra eld in hoe loco eadem utique esse 
debent quae in xxiv. 1: rd dé réraprov reparddes Schrader: 7d dé repar@des 
<d\Xbrpiov > Wecklein 5. dddws re apogr.: GA’ ds ye AS 6. 
éxdorov Marcianus 215, Parisinus 2038: éxacrov A° 7-10. Stkacov— 
kparetoOa Vv. ad 1455 b 33 8. ovdevi tows ws Bonitz: ovdev? ws Tyrwhitt: 
ovdév tows TH codd. 9. rotro] ravrd Teichmiiller : ro’rw Bursian 10. 
kpareioOa (cf. Polit. iv. (vii.) 13. 1831 b 38) Vahlen et = (‘ prensarunt 
utrumque’ Arabs): xporeto@ac codd. 12. d¢ ante 7d add. A°: om. apogr. 
17. 4 add. Vahlen’ NidBnv] ‘“ExdBnv Valla, unde “ExdByny [kat... 
Aisxvnos, | Reinach 18. dyabdy pr. A° et = 


1456a the Pathetic (where the motive is passion),—-such as the 
tragedies on Ajax and Ixion; the Ethical (where the 
motives are ethical)—such as the Phthiotides and the 
Peleus. The fourth kind is the Simple. ~<We here 
exclude the purely spectacular element>, exemplified by 
the Phorcides, the Prometheus, and scenes laid in Hades. 
The poet should endeavour, if possible, to combine all 3 
poetic elements; or failing that, the greatest number and 
those the most important; the more so, in face of the 
cavilling criticism of the day.. For whereas there have 
hitherto been good poets, each in his own branch, the 
critics now expect one man to surpass all others in their 
several lines of excellence. 

In In speaking of a tragedy as the same or different, the 
best test to take is the plot. Identity « exists where the 
Complication and Unravelling are the same. Many poets 
tie the knot well, but unravel it ill. Both arts, how- 
ever, should always be mastered. 

Again, the poet should remember what has been often 4 
said, and not make an Epic structure into a Tragedy— 
by an_Epic structure I_mean one with a multiplicity of 
plots—as if, for instance, you were to make a tragedy 
‘out of the erttire story of the Iliad. In the Epic poem, 

owing to its length, each part assumes its proper 
magnitude. In the drama the result is far from 
answering to the poet’s expectatien. The proof is that 5 
the poets who have dramatised the whole story of the 
Fall of Troy, instead of selecting portions, like Euripides ; 
or who have taken the whole tale of Niobe, and not a 
part of her story, like Aeschylus, either fail utterly or 
meet with poor success on the stage. Even Agathon 

68 XVIII. 5—XIX. 2. 1456 a 19—1456 br 

/ a a 
érrecev év TOUT@ pove@: év Oé Tals TepiTeTeiats [Kal ev Tots 
e la] a / ® / a 

20 dTAols mpdyuact] oroydfetar wv Bovrovtat Pavpactas: 
TpaytKov yap TovTO Kal diridvOpwrov. Eat 5é TovTO, OTav 6 
¢ , a 
6 coos [pev] peta tovnpias é€aratnOy, worep Liov- 
dos, Kal o avdpeios pev adukos Sé HTTNOn. Eat dé TovTO 
eixos womep “Aydbav réyer, eikds yap yiverOar moda 

/ a 
25 kal Tapa TO elKos. Kal Tov yopov dé eva Set trroda-7 
a a lal / 
Beiv rev btroKpiT@v, kal poptoy eivat Tod bdov Kal cuvayo- 
viterOar un womep Evpimidn GAN Borep Lodpokde?. Tots 
nr / Qn Lal 
S¢ Aoutrois TA Addpeva <ovdSév> padArov Tov ptOou 1) addANs 
/ b] / \ a / of , 7 
Tpaywdias éotiv: S10 euBordwa adovow mpwtov apEaytos 
a / 

30 °Ayd@wvos tod tTowovTov. Kaitot ti Svadéper 7) euBorpa 
bd XK > tn > bY4 > is ¢ / x °> , 
adew ) eb phow €€ addov eis GAO appoTToL 7 érreto oovov 
OXov ; 

XIX Ilept pcv ody TOV aAX@v Hn elpntat, Novrrov Sé Tepi 
, \ , > a \ \ 9 \ \ / b] 
NéFews Kal Stavoias eitreiy. Ta wey ody Tepl THY Stdvotay ev 
A \ ie nA , a \. » a ipa 4 
35 Tols wept pytopixhs KelcOw, ToUTO yap idvov padXov éxeivns 
A / ” \ \ \ / A ef. e \ 
Ths peOddov. ots Sé Kata THY Sidvotay TadTa, Oca VIO 
an / a a \ 4 / > q 
Tov Aoyou Sei TapacKevacOjvat. pépyn Se TOUT@Y TO TE aTrO- 2 
4 \ \ , \ \ / / 
Secxviva Kal TO Avew Kal TO TaOn TapacKevatery, oto 

1456b €Xeov 4) hoBov 7) dopynv Kal doa ToavTa, Kal Ett péyeOos 

19-20. cal év . . . mpdyuacr secl. Susemihl: tuetur Arabs év Tots Gardoits] 
év rots Surdois Twining: adds év Tots Gomperz 20. croxdgera: Heinsius : 
oroxdfovra codd. 21. rpayixdv—pirdvOpwror infra post #rrnO7 collocat 
Susemihl 22. aut secludendum ypév (Margoliouth cum Arabe) aut 6e 
post zrovnplas legendum (add. Riccardianus 16) 23. HrrnOn AS 24. 
kal elxds Gomrep Riccardianus 46 (confirm. Arabs) 27. wowep rap’ —orep 
mapa Ald., ceterum cf. Pol. 1339 b 8 28. dovrots] moAdo’s Margoliouth 
cum Arabe ddéueva Maggi (‘quae canuntur’ Arabs): diddueva A® 

ovdév add. Vahlen, et = (‘ nihil. . . aliud amplius’ Arabs): od add. Maggi 
80. ro.ovrov] rounrod Z, ut videtur 38. #5 apogr.: 70° A®: eldeGy &, 
ut videtur 84. xal Hermann: 7 codd. 38. wd0y secl. Bernays, 
tuetur Arabs 


has been known to fail from this one defect. In his 
Reversals of the Situation, however, he shows a marvellous 
skill in the effort to hit the popular taste-—to produce a 
tragic effect that satisfies the moral sense. This effect is 6 

produced when the clever rogue, like Sisyphus, is out- vont WE 

witted, or the brave villain defeated. Such an event is Ac ae 

probable in Agathon’s sense of the word: ‘it is probable,’ 
he says, ‘that many things should happen contrary to 

2 The Chorus too should be regarded as one of the7 
actors; it should be an integral part of the whole, and 
share in the action, in the manner not of Euripides but 
of Sophocles. As for the later poets, their choral songs 
pertain as little to the subject of the piece as to that of 
any other tragedy. They are, therefore, sung as mere 
interludes,—a practice first begun by Agathon. Yet 
what difference is there between introducing such choral 
interludes, and transferring a speech, or even a whole act, 
from one play to another ? 

XIX It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the 
other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. 
Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in 
the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly 
belongs. Under -Thought is included every effect which 

has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being,— 2 
Nee and refutation ; the excitation of the feelings, such 

1456bas pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of 

70 XIX. 3—XX. 2. 1456 b 2—21 

\ / aA \oo \ + a , > A 
Kal pixpotntas. Odhrov dé dtu Kal [év] Tots Tpadywacw ato 8 
nw nw an A A e 
Tov avtav idedv Set ypjobat, Stay 7) edeeva 7 Sewa 7H 
/ xX 3 / dé / \ an 5 
peyada 7 elKoTa O€n TapacKevafey: ANY ToTOvTOY dLa- 
A / \ 

5 héper, Ott TA pev Set haiverOas dvev didacKkarias, Ta Sé 
> la) / e \ a / /, \ \ 
év T® NOYH WTO TOD AéyovTOs TapacKevdfecOat Kal Tapa 

t é 
\ / / , \ x »y fal / ” > 
Tov Oyo yiyverOar. Ti yap av ein TOD AéyovTOS Epyor, Et 
\ / an 
paivorto 4 Sidvoia Kal pn dia Tov Noyov ; Tov Sé Tepl THY 4 
réEw ev pév eotw eidos Oewpias Ta TXHMATA THS rNéEcws, 
¢ pI sa / ral e a \ n \ 4 wy 
10 & é€otuy eldéval THS UTOKpLTLKHS Kal TOD THY ToLaUTHY exoOV- 
> , i / 3 \ \ , > \ \ PS) / 
Tos apyltextoviKny, olov Ti évTodkn Kal TL evyn Kal Suy- 
\ 5 \ \ 3 / \ > / \ 7 of 
ynows Kal atrethn Kat EPWMTNTLS KAL ATTOKPLOLS Kal el TL aXXo 
n \ \ \ , n A oo» 5D) 6 
ToLwovTOY. Tapa yap THY TOVTaY YYaoW 1 ayvotay ovdéev 
> \ \ b] , / iA \ a 
els THY TonTLKnY émiTiLnwa héperas 6 TL Kal dELov oTov- 
fol nr A , 
15 Os. Th yap av Tis vroddBor jyaptnac0ar & Ilpwrayopas 


emiTipa, OTL evyerOar oidpevos éemitarres citrav “ whvw dese 
Bed,” TO yap KededDoar pyoly rroveiy Te 7) ph erritakis éorup. 

810 mapelicOm ws AAS Kal od THs TounTiKhs dv Oewphua. 
XX [Tis 5&¢ AéEews ardons tad éotl ta pépy, cTot- 
20 yelov ovd\dNa87 oivdecpos dvoya pia [apOpoy] mradous 

/ ° \ 9 ? tee. / > a 
Novos. aTTovyelov pev ovv cot wi) advaipeTos, ov Taca 2 

1456 b 2. puxpdrynras AS: ouixpdrynra Parisinus 2038 év secl. Ueberweg: 
<rois> év Wrobel 8. ldedv apogr.: eldedv A® 4, déy Parisinus 
2088: 3 % Ac 8. galvorro scripsi: gavotro codd.  Siudvom 

Margoliouth, Wrobel (praeeunte Spengel) : #d¢a codd. (‘voluptates’ Arabs) : 
%5n Castelvetro: 7 dé Vahlen (ed. 2): #5 & det Tyrwhitt: #5n 77 Oég 
Gomperz 20. dp0pov secl. Hartung (quem dubitantius secutus sum): 
post civdeouos transtulit Spengel (confirm. Arabs): ovvdecuos <> dpOpov 


importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that 3 
the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same 
points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object 
is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or prob- 
ability, The only difference is, that the incidents 
should speak for themselves without verbal exposition ; 
while the effects aimed at in speech should be pro- 
duced by the speaker, and as a result of the speech. 
For what were the business of a speaker, if the Thought 
were revealed quite apart from what he says ? 

Next, as regards Diction. One branch of the inquiry 4 
treats of the Modes of Utterance. But this province 
of knowledge belongs to the art of Delivery and to 
the masters of that science. It includes, for instance, 
—what is a command, a prayer, a statement, a threat, 
a question, an answer, and so forth. To know or not5 
to know these things involves no serious censure upon 
the poet’s art. For who can admit the fault imputed 
to Homer by Protagoras,—that in the words, ‘Sing, 
goddess, of the wrath, he gives a command under the 
idea that he utters a prayer? For to tell some one to 
do a thing or not to do it is, he says, a command. We 
may, therefore, pass this over as an inquiry that belongs 
to another art, not to poetry. 

XX [Language in general includes the following parts :— 
Letter, Syllable; Connecting word, Noun, Verb, Inflexion 
or Case, Sentence or Phrase. | 

A Letter is an indivisible sound, yet not every such 2 
sound, but only one which can form part of a group of 





1457 a 

72 XX. 2—6. 1456 b 22—1457 a 2 

? lal 
5é Gr é& Fs wéhuxe cvvOeTH yiryverOar dwvy Kal yap TOV 
Onpiov eicly adiaipetor hovai, av ovdepiav Eyw oTOL- 

n 4 \ / , an \ . a / \ 
yelov. TauTns dé pwépn TO Te haviev Kal TO Hulpwvov Kai 
ddwvov. éotw 5 davyev péev <TO> avev TpocBorys éyor 3 

\ > / ¢ / \ \ \ an 4 
doviy axovothny, Hpidwvoy dé TO peta TpoaBorgjs eyov 
dovav akovaTHy, olov TO % Kal Td P, ddwvov Sé Td peta 
mpocBorns Kal? avTo pév ovdemiay éyov pwvyv, meta Oé 

a samt 4 \ \ 4 > , \ \ 
ToV éxovT@Y TLWa PwVviY ywomevoy akovoTor, olov To I Kat 

\ n \ , / / a / \ 
TO A. tadta Sé Siadépes cynpaciv te Tod oTopaTos Kal 4 
tomas Kat Sacvrnte Kal yodornts Kal pHKer Kal Bpayd- 

Bg Se, / \ 4 \ n rs \ 2 
tnt, étt 5é o€vTnTe Kal Bapitnte Kal TO péow* Tepl ov 
Kal Exaorov [év] Tols wetpiKots mpoonKer Oewpeiv. osvAAAaP) 5 
5é éotw hovyn donuos cuvbeTn €E apwvov kal dwvnv éxor- 
Tos: Kab yap To I'P dvev rod A ovdAraBy Kal peta Tov 
A, olov ro TPA. aAXa Kal TodTwv Oewpfhcar Tas Siahopas 

na a b] 4 4, 3 Tate 4 A bd 

THs petpexns €otw. abvdecpos Sé eotiv pwviy daonpmos 4) ov- 6 
4 BA “ \ / \ > / 


davav, tepucvia [ovv]ribecOar Kal ert tay dxpwov Kai emt 

22. ovvOerh apogr. (‘compositae voci’ Arabs): ovvery A 25. 7d add. 
Reiz 33. &v secl. Spengel 34, post pwvhv éxovros coni. Christ 
<# whedbvwv addvwv cal pwvhv exovros> 35-36. kal yap 7rd I'P dvev 

Tod A ovA\aBi kal werd rod A AC; ‘nam IT’ et P sine A non faciunt syllabam, 
quoniam tantum fiunt syllaba cum A’ Arabs, unde kai yap 76 [TP <ovn> 
dvev rod? P ovA\aBy, GAXG werd Tod A Margoliouth (similia Susemihl ed. 1): 
kal yap 7) A d&vev rod P avAdaBh kal wera rod P Tyrwhitt: cal yap 7d A dvev 
rod FP ovA\aBh Kal wera roo TP M. Schmidt 1457 a 1-8. 4 obre Kwrver 
—#ro, 5€ Hartung, Susemih]. Codicum fide ita vulgo legitur: 4 ovre 
Kwrver ore moet pwviv play onuavtixiv, é€x wreidbywv pwvev wedukviay cuvtl- 
OecOat, kal ért rdv Expwv Kal érl rod péoov, tw wh apudrre (vy wh dpudrryn 
apogr.) év dpxp TiOévac Kal’ abréy (airiv Tyrwhitt), ofov pév (mer. A°), Hroe 
(qrot. Ac), 5€ (Se A°). 7 pwr donwos } éx mrevdvwv ev pwvdy juds onuwarTiKav 
(Robortelli: onpwavrixdy A°) dé roetv répucer ulay onuarrixhy pwvyy. &pOpov 
& éorl pwvh donuos, } Abyou dpxhv 7} rédos 7 Stopicudy Sydot, olov rd dpudl 
(Hartung: ¢. #7. A®: pyul Ald., Bekker) cai 7d wepl (7. €. p. t. A°) kal ra GdXa. 


sounds. For even brutes utter indivisible sounds, none 
of which I call a letter. The sound I mean may be3 
either a vowel, a semi-vowel, or a mute. A vowel is 
that which without. impact of tongue or lip has an 
audible sound. A semi-vowel, that which with such 
impact has an audible sound, as S and hk. A mute, 
that which with such impact has by itself no sound, 
but joined to a vowel sound becomes audible, as G and 
D. These are distinguished according to the form 4 
assumed by the mouth and the place where they are 
produced ; according as they are aspirated or smooth, 
long or short; as they are acute, grave, or of an inter- 
mediate tone; which inquiry belongs in detail to the 
writers on metre. 

A Syllable is a non-significant sound, composed of a5 
mute and a vowel: for GR without A is a syllable, as 
also with A,—GRA. But the investigation of these 
differences belongs also to metrical science. 

A Connecting word is a non-significant sound, which 6 

1457a neither causes nor hinders the union of many sounds 

into one significant sound; it may be placed at either 

Sed nescio an Déring vero propius accesserit qui locum sic restituit : 
civiecuos bé éorw hwvh donwos } ex mredvwv pev pwvdv, pds onwayTiKdy 
5é aovety répucey plav onuavrixhy dwviv, iy wh apudrre év dpxn byou 
ribévar Kad’ abrhy, ofov 7d dpdl Kal 7d mepl cal rad &ddAa. ApOpoy 9 earl 
puwvh donuos, } ovre kwrver ore moved Gwvhyv play onuwavtixhy éx mrecdvev 
puvav [repuxviay] cvvtlOecOar, <ddr’> 4 Adyou dpxhv 7 Tédos 7 dtopropoy 
Snot, weduxvia riOecOa kal ért rdv dxpwv kal émrt rod pécov, olov wév, Fro, 
dé. Nullam tamen Arabis rationem Doring habuit, et Arabs quidem cum 
nostris codicibus parum congruit. Ipse ut in re nondum satis explicata 
éréxew me fateor 2. mepuxvia rlOecOar Winstanley : reduxviary ovv- 
rlOecba codd. 





74 XX. 6—11. 1457 a 3—26 

a / a \ + A > / \ 
TOU pecov' 7» hwvn acnuos  éxK Trelovwv pev a- 
a al / 
vov mas, onwavTiKav Sé, Troveiy TépuKey play onpavTiKny 
povnv, olov To audi Kal TO epi Kal TA AdAda* <)> hov)7 
»” / \ a 
aonuos 1) Noyou apyny 7) Tédos 7) Svopicpov Syro?, Ay 1) 
e / > > lal / / 3 e / / 4 
appmoTrer é€v apyn Noyou TWWévar Kal” avryy, oloy pév, TOL, 
, x 1 f rf val s 
dé. [7 povn donuos 1) odTe Korver oTE Troved Povny 
, \ / fal al 
piav onpavTiKny éx TELOVaV pavayv TepuKuia TiIBEecOaL Kal 
an bd 
évl TOV axpwv Kal émt ToD pécov.] dvoua Sé éott havi 8 
\ \ » f Ka / >Q/ > > 
auvlern onpavtiKy dvev ypovov Hs pépos ovdév éote Kab 
eA / b] \ fal lal > , ¢e \ 
aUTO OnwavTiKov: év yap Tois Simdois od ypapeOa ws Kal 
2. ® a n an 
avto Kal’ avTo onpaivov, otov év To Ocoddpo Td dSaHpov 
b / en \ \ \ \ / 
ov onpaiver. pha o€ dwvn cuvOeTH onpavTiKH peTa YpO- 
Ka ye f / eM fey ead 4 Toe rl 
vou 1s ovdev pépos onpwaiver KaO avo, @oTep Kal él TOV 
> / \ \ \ “7 A f > / \ 
OvOMaTw@V* TO pev yap avOpwiros 7 evKOV Ov oHpaiver TO 
4 \ \ ? x 
mote, TO d¢ Badifer 7) BeBadicev Tpoconpaiver TO pev TOV 
/ / \ / A ’ 
Tapovta “povov TO 5é Tov TapeAnAvOoTa. Tras 8 éoTly 
SY, A ef e \ 4, \ \ 4 x e 
Hatvov Kal boa Totadta, 7) Sé KaTa TO évl 4 ToAXOFS, olov 
+ x A e \ \ bey 4 > 
avOpwrro. 7 avOpwtros, 7) 5é KaTa Ta VIroKpLTKA, olov KaT 
épotnow, éritakiw: To yap éBddicev; 4 Badile mradcis 
a / \ 
pnwatos Kata TadTa Ta eldn éotiv. Rovyos b¢ dwvi cvvOern 
\ e 4 / > e \ , ? \ 
onuavTKn As évia pépn Kal avTa onpaiver Tr* ov yap 
? t aA , eae , , re 
amas oyos €k pnudtav Kal dvouadtav ovyKertat, olov “oO 
a 3 , ¢€ /_ 99 > Any J / \ by ¢€ , 
Tov avOpwtrov opiamos”* adr évdéyeTal <Kal> dvev pnuaTov 
4. onpavtixdy Robortelli: onuayrixdy AC 7. #ro] 64 rot Bywater 
8-10. 4. . . pwéoou seclus. Reiz 17. moré Spengel Badife: apogr. : 
Badifer Ac mpoconuatve. Parisinus 2038: mpoonmalver A& 19. 7d 
xara Td Riccardianus 16: 7d kara A: xara 7d Reiz 22. éBddiev ; (nota 

interrogationis addita) Tyrwhitt: <dp’> ¢Bdéiwev; Vahlen Badife 
Riccardianus 16: éBddigfev Ac 26. xat add. Gomperz 



end or in the middle of a sentence. Or, a non-significant 
sound, which out of several sounds, each of them signi- 
ficant, is capable of forming one significant sound,—as 
audi, mepi, and the like. Or, a non-significant sound, 7 
which marks the beginning, end, or division of a sentence; 
such, however, that it cannot correctly stand by itself at 
the beginning of a sentence,—as pév, ToL, dé. 

A Noun is a composite significant sound, not marking 8 
time, of which no part is in itself significant: for in 
double or compound words we do not employ the 
separate parts as if each were in itself significant. Thus 
in Theodorus, ‘ god-given, the da@pov or ‘gift’ is not in 
itself significant. 

A Verb is a composite significant sound, marking 9 
time, in which, as in the noun, no part is in itself signi- 
ficant. For ‘man,’ or ‘white’ does not express the idea 
of ‘when’; but ‘he walks, or ‘he has walked’ does 
connote time, present or past. | 

Inflexion belongs both to the noun and verb, and 10 
expresses either the relation ‘of? ‘to,’ or the like; or 
that of number, whether one or many, as ‘man’ or 
‘men’; or the modes or tones in actual delivery, e.g. a 
question or a command. ‘Did he go?’ and ‘go’ are 
verbal inflexions of this kind. 

A Sentence or Phrase is a composite significant 11 
sound, some at least of whose parts are in themselves 
significant; for not every such group of words consists 
of verbs and nouns—‘ the definition of man,’ for example 
-—but it may dispense even with the verb. Still it will 

76 XX. 11—XXI. 4. 1457 a 27—1457 bg 

> , / f Df a Y 6c? A 
eivat Noyov. pépos pévTot del TL onuaivoy &£e1, olov “év TO 
> ¢ / an x 
Badifew, “Kréwv 0 KXéwvos.” eis 5é ati NOyos Suy@s, 7 yap 12 
¢ / a’ / > \ \ 
o é&y onpaivor, 7 0 éx TAELOvaY TUVdéEguM, Olov 7 “Ihtas pév 
dé e 8a a > , nia , 
30 cuvdéopm els, 0 Sé€ Tod avOpwrrov TO Ev ocnpaivery.]| 
/ los n \ / a 
XXI "Ovopatos dé eldn TO pev arrody, aTAodY Se Aéywo O 
\ 3 ; 4 lal \ \ a , 
BN EK ONwaWworvTorv cbyKeLTal, olov yi}, TO 5é SumAovv* TOVTOV 
be \ \ > / \ > / \ > > n 
€ TO pev €k onpalvoyvTos Kal aonpwov (TARY OvK eV TO 
ee / AD / \ de > , 
ovouaTte onpaivoyvtos [kal aonpou]), To dé eke onmatvovTov 
> a n 
35 cUyKerTat. ln S dv Kal TpiTrAody Kal TeTpaTAODY dvoya Kal 
a al al ¢ - 
moAXaTAoby, olov Ta TOAAA THY Maccadiwtav: Eppoxai- 
1457» KOEavOos <émevéduevos Avi matpi>. array S€é dvopd éotw 2 
x , A lal x \ x / Xx / 
) KUpLoV 1) YAOTTA 7) peTapopa 7) KOTMoS 4) TeTroLNMEeVOY 
x / 
) émexterapévov %) vdypnuévoyv 7 éEnrAXaypévov. éyw3 
de / \ e a 4 n Se ® 
é€ KvUpioy péev @ yYxpovTaL ExacTOL, yA@TTaY Se @ 
4 e \ ¢ \ n \ 4 s 
5 €repou’ w@ote davepoy Tt Kal yA@TTav Kal KUpLoV éEivaL 
/ \ a a \ , 
Suvatov TO avTo, pa Tols avTois Sé TO yap aiyuvor 
/ a tal \ 
Kurpiows pev Kvptov, hiv 56 yA@TTa. petapopa oé 4 
9 > 7 ’ , 5 Mia shaeonis bss a , eee 

id x b \ a AN 2.4 \ / x > \ n + 
€l00S » aTO TOV €ELOOUS ETL TO yevos 7 aro TOV €&l- 

28. Badlfer A°: Badige. Parisinus 2038 Kréwy 6 KXéwvos M. Schmidt 
(K\éwvos habuit 2): KAéwv 6 Kiéwv codd. év Tw ‘* Badlfec KXéwv” 6 
C Bigg) K\éwv edd. plerique 29. ovvdéouy Riccardianus 16: cvvdéouwv 

30. Te apogr.: 7d Ae 33. év TG dvduaTt Vahlen, et 2, ut 
Tae: : év Tp dvéuaros codd.: évrdés rod évéuaros Tucker 84. kal dorwou 
om. 2, ut videtur (‘non tamen indicans in nomine’ Arabs), Idem effecit 
Ussing deleto cal dovmov in vy. 33 et mutata interpunctione, é« onpalvorros, 
why obK €v TH dvduare onpalvovros, Kal dotmou, KTH. 36. peyadwwrav 
codd.: Maccadwwray Diels, qui collato Arabe (‘sicut multa de Massiliotis 
Hermocaicoxanthus qui supplicabatur dominum caelorum’) totum versum 
“Epuox.—marpl tanquam epici carminis, comice scripti, ex coniectura 
restituit: unde pera <yédwros olov Macoa>)wrdv coni. Rutherford. ‘Epox. 
ad Phocaeam spectat, Massiliae unrpérodwv, urbem inter Hermum et Caicum 
sitam. Ceteras emendationes licet iam missas facere, e.g. peyadrelwy ws 
Winstanley : weyadelwv ofov Bekker ed. 3: peyadelwy dv Vahlen 1457 b 3. 
adypynuévov Spengel (cf. 1458 a 1) 9, 7d om. apogr. 


always have some significant part, as ‘in walking,’ or 
‘Cleon son of Cleon.” A sentence or phrase may form 12 
a unity in two ways,—either as signifying one thing, or 
as consisting of several parts linked together. Thus the 
Iliad is one by the linking together of parts, the definition 
of man by the unity of the thing signified. | 

XXI Words are of two kinds, simple and double. By 
simple I mean those composed of non-significant elements, 
such as yf. By double or compound, those composed 
either of a _ significant and non-significant element 
(though within the whole word no element is significant), 
or of elements that are both significant. A word may 
likewise be triple, quadruple, or multiple in form, like 

1457b so many Massilian expressions, e.g. ‘ Hermo-caico-xanthus 
<who prayed to Father Zeus>.’ 

Every word is either current, or strange, or meta- 2 
phorical, or ornamental, or newly-coined, or lengthened, 
or contracted, or altered. | 

By a current or proper word I mean one which is 3 
in general use among a people; by a strange word, one 
which is in use in another country. Plainly, therefore, 
the same word may be at once strange and current, but 
not in relation to the same people. The word ciyuvor, 
‘lance, is to the Cyprians a current term but to us a 
strange one. 

Metaphor is the application of an alien’ name by 4 
transference either from genus to species, or from species 
to genus, or from species to species, or by analogy, that is, 

78 XXI. 4—8. 1457 b 10—32 

10 Sous él eld0s 7) Kata TO avddoyov. Réyw Sé atrd yévous per 5 
ee 75 Z “ec a dé ae sd ” \ \ € pc 
mrt eldos olov “vnds dé wou HO ExTnKkev* TO yap oppeEty oT 
> /? 
éotdvat TL. am eldous dé él yévos “% 2 pwupt "Odvaceds 
> » Gael 33 \ \ / PA / > 7. al > \ 
écOra Eopyev’” TO yap pupiov Todw <Ti> eat, @ viv avTi 
n an % a 
Tod mMoANOd KéxpyTat. am eidous dé emi eidos olov “yadrK@ 
> \ \ > / ” Nose \ b) rd a ) a 
15 amo Wuynv apvoas Kal “Tapwv aTErpel YANK@* evTav0a 

\ \ / n \ a 
yap TO pev apioa Tapelv, TO Sé Tapelvy apvoa eipynKev: 


dudw yap adbereiv ti dot. TO Sé€ dvddoyov Aéyo, STAY 
¢ , ” \ U4 \ \ a \ \ / 
omoiws yn TO SevTepov pos TO TPHTOV Kal TO TETApTOV 
\ \ / > al \ > \ n / \ / Xx 
mpos TO Tpitov: épel yap avti tov Sevtépov TO TéTapTor 7) 
> \ al 4 \ / es GoEt' ¢ / > bd 
20 avTl ToD TeTapTou TO SevTEpoY, Kal évioTe TpocTLOéacw av 
\ e 
of Néyes mpos 6 dots. RAéyw Sé olov opoiws exer hiddn Tpos 
/ al / \ 
Avdvucor Kat aomis mpos”Apn: épel rolvuy thy piddnv aorida 
\ 4 ” A A 
Avovicov Kat Thy aomida diddrny “Apews. 7) 5 yhpas pos 
/ St 2 / \ e / b] lal / \ e / n 
Biov, Kat éorépa mpods Hépav: épel Toiwuy THY éEomrépay yij- 
a » anny a ¢€ , / GPA KB 5 a 
25 pas Huépas Kal TO yhpas éomépav Biov H, @atrep Eprredoxdijs, 
} \ / : Tg 5 > ” ¥ / a > / 
vopas Biov. éviow 8 ovK éotw dvoma Keipevov TOV avd-7 
> ¢ , / 
Noyov, GAN ovdev HrTov opoiws AexXOnceTas: olov TO Tov 
\ \ 27 2 / \ NWS goa t yan, A 
KapTov pev adiévat oreipew, To S€ THY PrOya amo TOU 
Pz , a : 
Hrlov avevupov: adr opoiws ever TODTO Tpds TOV *ALOV Kat 
\ t \ \ / 5 \ oy» ‘s , fs) , 
30 TO OTrelpe Tpos TOV KapTrOY, SLO elpntat “ometpov JeoxTicTav 
Moya.” oT O€ TO THOT TOUTM THs weTapopa noOar 8 
proya. ® TPOTE O THS bh pas vpnolat 

\ »+ / \ > / ’ a a 
Kal dANwS, TpOTayopevaavTa TO aANOTPLOY aTropyaaL TOV 

11. dpyiv Ac 12. éorévar (@ ut videtur ex 4) A h 5) apogr. : 
Hon AS 18. pdipiov Ac ri add. Twining 15. dptoas xal 
Tyrwhitt (dpticas Leidensis, corr. Vaticanus 1400, cat Laurentianus lx. 21): 
deptoacke AC tauov Bekker (ed. 3): reudv AC arnpec A& . 25-26. 
hpépas—duopuas Riccardianus 16, Parisinus 2038: qudpas 4) womwep "Eumedoxdijs 
kal 7d yhpas éomépay Blov 7) ducpas AS 28. dad] ért M. Schmidt 30. 
<rTov agiévra> Tov kaprév Castelvetro 


proportion. Thus from genus to species, as: ‘There lies 5 
my ship’; for lying at anchor is a species of lying. 
From species to genus, as: ‘ Verily ten thousand noble 
deeds hath Odysseus wrought’; for ten thousand is a 
species of large number, and is here used for a large 
number generally. From species to species, as: ‘ With 
blade of bronze drew away the life,’ and ‘ Cleft the water 
with the vessel of unyielding bronze. Here dpicas, ‘to 
draw away, is used for tapety, ‘to cleave, and tapety 
again for dpvcat,—each being a species of taking away. 
Analogy or proportion is when the second term is to the 6 
first as the fourth to the third. We may then use the 
fourth for the second, or the second for the fourth. 
Sometimes too we qualify the metaphor by adding the 
term to which the proper word is relative. Thus the 
cup is to Dionysus as the shield to Ares. The cup may, 
therefore, be called ‘the shield of Dionysus, and the 
shield ‘the cup of Ares.’ Or, again, as old age is to life, 
so is evening to day. Evening may therefore be called 
‘the old age of the day, and old age, ‘the evening of 
life,’ or, in the phrase of Empedocles, ‘life’s setting sun.’ 
For some of the terms of the proportion there is at times 7 
no word in existence; still the metaphor may be used. 
For instance, to scatter seed is called sowing: but the 
action of the sun in scattering his rays is nameless. Still 
this process bears to the sun the same relation as sowing 
to the seed. Hence the expression of the poet ‘sowing 
the god-created light. There is another way in which 8 
this kind of metaphor may be employed. We may apply 
an alien term, and then deny of that term one of its 

80 XXII. 8—XXII. 1. 1457 b 33—1458 a 20 

, \ 
oixetwy TL, olov et THY aomida elrrou piddynv pn ”"Apews AAN 
+ / , 
dowov, <Kocpos O€...>. Terompévoy 8 éotly d ddas 9 
- / c \ a 9.4 / e / ' a 4 
” 3 n 
évia eivat TovavTa) olov Ta Képata épyiyas Kal Tov tepéa 
A / 
48a apnThpa. émextetapévov Sé éorw 1) adypnuévov TO pév ay 10 
povnevTs waxpoTépm Keypnuévoy 4 TOV oiKelov 7) gvANABH 
b] / \ \ A > ls 5 > RS / 
éuBeBrAnuévy, TO Sé dv adbypnuévov Te} avTod, émexTeTamevov 
/ , 
bev olov TO WoAEwsS TOAHOS Kal TO IInAcidov IInAnvddeo, 
> t Se i \ n Gita: eS lees ae , > 
5 abypnpévov Sé olov TO Kpt Kal TO 60 Kal “ pia yiverar ap- 
dhotépav Oy.” é&ndAXNaypévov 8 éotiv Stay Tod ovopafopévov 11 
ip oe \ 52 Se Ǥ \ \ , 
TO pev KaTANELTN TO Oé TroLn, olov TO “ SeEvTEpov KaTa palov 
bd \ a / 
avtl tod dSeEsov. 
[adrav Sé Tov dvoudtay Ta pév Appeva TA Sé Onrea Ta 12 
10 6¢ petakd, dppeva pev boa TerevTa eis TO N cal P cal & 
Kar boa éx Tovtouv abyKetat (radta 8 éatlv S00, V nai B), 
Onrea Sé boa éx TOY hovyévTor els TETA Gel paKpa, otov eis H 
\ \ an > f > 4 »” / 
kal QO, kat Tov érexTewwopuevay ets A+ woTe ica ovpPaiver 
mTAHOn eis boa TA dppeva Kal Ta Ondrea: Td yap V Kal To 
15 <T@ Y> Tava éoti. eis 5é dpwvoy ovdev dvowa TedeuTG, ovSE 
> a / J de \ / 4 / / / 
eis daviev Bpayv. eis d¢ 70 I tTpia povov, méde Kopp TETrEpL. 
eis 86 TO T révte. ta Sé petakd eis TadTa Kat N cab &.] 
lod \ 
XXII Aé£ews Sé apetn cad} cal pr Tarewny evar. ca- 
, \ 9 > ¢ > a / ? , ’ \ 
hectaTn pev OvV EOTLY ) EK TOY KUpL@Y OVOMaT@Y, ada 
\ a 
20 TaTrewn* tmrapdderypa Sé 4 Kreodpavtos moinows Kai 4 


33. ddX’ dowov Vettori: dAda olvov A et Z 34, <xéopos 5. . .> 
Maggi 1458 a 2. xexpnuévos Hermann 7) Ac ovAdaByH éuBeBdn- 
pévn AS 3. ddnpyn péev Svri AS 4, médeos A® wnveldov Parisinus 
2038: mndéos A®: Indéos <I ndfjos cat 7d InvetSou>M. Schmidt 6. dy 
Vettori ; dys A° (0+ 1IC0=OWVI0) 10. «kal = Riccardianus 16 (confirm. 
Arabs): om, A° 14. wdHOn AS: wdHOee apogr. 15. ro = add. 
anon. ap. Tyrwhitt 17. post mévre add. 7d w&v 7d varv 7d yévu 7d 
dépv 7d dorv Riccardianus 16 Tatra <xat A> cai N <xal P> cal & 



proper attributes; as if we were to call the shield, not 
‘the cup of Ares,’ but ‘the wineless cup.’ 

<An ornamental word . . .> 

A newly-coined word is one which has never been 9 
even in local use, but is adopted by the poet himself. 
Some such words there appear to be: as épvuryes, 
‘sprouters, for xépara, ‘horns, and dapnrtjp, ‘ supplicator, 
for iepeds, ‘ priest.’ 

63a A word is lengthened when its own vowel is exchanged 10 
for a longer one, or when a syllable is inserted. A 
word is contracted when some part of it is removed. 
Instances of lengthening are,—7dAnos for roAews, and 
IImAniddew for IInreidou: of sini Nace id 60, and 
dy, as in pia yivera dydortépwv 3b 

An altered word is one in which pak of the adhiies il 
form is left unchanged, and part is re-cast; as in def- 
tepov kata patov, dSeEvrepov is for defor. 

[Nouns in themselves are either masculine, feminine, 12 
or neuter. Masculine are such as end in », p, s, or in 
some letter compounded with s,—these being two, » 
and £ Feminine, such as end in vowels that are always 
long, namely » and w, and—of vowels that admit of 
lengthening—those in a. Thus the number of letters in 
which nouns masculine and feminine end is the same; 
for yy and & are equivalent to endings ins. No noun ends 
in a mute or a vowel short by nature. Three only end in 
t,—pédt, Komp, Témrepe: five end in v. Neuter nouns 
end in these two latter vowels; also in v and ¢.] 

XXII The perfection of style is to be clear without being 
mean. The clearest style is that which uses only current 
or proper words; at the same time it is mean :—witness 
the poetry of Cleophon and of Sthenelus. That diction, 


82 XXII. 1—5. 1458 a 21—1458 bog 

\ \ n 
LOevérov. ceuvny Sé cab éEaddrdTTovea TO idiwTiKov 7) Tots 
a / \ \ f lal \ 
Eevixois xexpnuévn Eevixov dé Aéywo yAOTTav Kal pera- 
\ » ae 4 / \ a \ \ \ 4 b ee 
hopav Kal €TEeKTACLY Kal TaY TO Tapa TO KUpLOV. GAN ay2 
ee ¢ n / x + ” x 
Tis Gua atrayta ToavtTa Troimon, } alviyya éeotar  BapBa- 
/ x \ 9 3 Lad y 3\ \ b] 
25 pusposs av pev ovv éx petahopav, aivuyywa, av dé ex 
a / | Eee / O/ ef bd / 
yAwrrav, BapBapicpos* aiviyparos te yap idéa avn oti, 
\ / e / > / / \ \ 5 \ 
TO AéyovTa UTdpyovTa advvata cuvdryal. KaTa wey OY THY 
a ” > / / > er A a 
TOV <add\AoV> ovouaTtav civOecw ovy olov Te TOUTO TroLhoaL 
Kata S¢ Thy petadopav évdéyerat, olov “ dvdp’ eidov rupli yar- 
\ ER ay / 39 \ a a bY a 
fal / a BA lal 4 / \ 
tov BapBapiopos. Set apa Kexpacbai mas Tovtois: TO3 
\ \ a \ / \ / ® € fa) 
pev yap pa idvwtiKov Tomes unde Tarewvov, olov 7» yA@TTA 
¢ / 
Kal % petadhopa Kal Oo Koopmos Kal TadA\G TA Elpnuéva 
ein, TO Se KUpLov THY cadynveav. ovK éhaxLoTov dé pépos 4 
\ \ a 
ussb oupPdrArcTaL eis TO Gades THs AéEews Kal pH lOvwTLKOV 
ai émextdces Kal amoxotat kal éEaddayal TOV ovopd- 
# ) 
Tov: did pev yap TO dAdws exew 7) ws TO KUpPLOY, Tapa 

\ ’ \ / \ ip ARID \ / \ \ \ 
TO ELwOds yiryvomevov, TO pn Ldvw@TLKOY TrotnoeL, Sua SE TO KoL- 


a a ’ / \ \ + ef b] > n / 
5 vwovely TOD elwOoTos TO cadés Ectat. WaTE OVK OpOds Yréryov- 
a a , a / 
8 a \ / Z Ez x id ¢ > n e 

KopmoodyTes TOV TroimTHny, olov Evedeldns 0 apyaios, ws 
er a BY f > / Ae! SRE TN A 2 / 
paodvov Trovety, eb TLS doce. éxteivery €b omrocov BovdeTat, 

iauBoroujoas év aith tH réEeu “’Emvydpny eidov Mapa- 

24. &ua dravra Riccardianus 16, Parisinus 2038: av daavra A®: daravra al. 

Toney apogr.: mojoar A® 28. d\\wv add. Margoliouth, collato Arabe 
‘reliqua nomina’: xvpiwy add. Heinsius oWwbecw] ovviPeav Tucker 

ov’xolovra A& 29. fort. ueradopay Bywater lov Ae mupt 
xarxdv Vettori; mupixadxov codd. 30-31. ante vel post é«— Bap- 
Bapicwds lacunam statuit Gomperz 31, Kexpdc0ac Maggi e cod. Lam- 
pridii (‘si miscentur haec’ Arabs): xexplo@a codd. cett. 1458 b 1. 
ouuBdrerat A®: cupBddrovrac apogr. 9. "Emcxdpyy Bursian : free xdpw Ac: 
él xdpw =, ut videtur (‘appellatum cum favore’ Arabs) eldov apogr. : 
idov A®; liwv Gomperz 


on the other hand, is lofty and raised above the common- 
place which employs unusual words. By unusual, I 
mean strange (or rare) words, metaphorical, lengthened,— 
anything, in short, that differs from the normal idiom. 
Yet a style wholly composed of such words is either a2 
riddle or a jargon; a riddle, if it consists of metaphors ; 
a jargon, if it consists of strange (or rare) words. For the 
essence of a riddle is to express true facts under im- 
possible combinations. Now this cannot be done by any 
arrangement of ordinary words, but by the use of meta- 
phor it can. Such is the riddle:—‘ A man I saw who 
on another man had glued the bronze by aid of fire,’ and 
others of the same kind. A diction that is made up of ' 
strange (or rare) terms is a jargon. A certain infusion, 3 
therefore, of these elements is necessary to style; for the 
strange (or rare) word, the metaphorical, the ornamental, 
and the other kinds above mentioned, will raise it above 
the commonplace and mean, while the use of proper 
words will make it perspicuous. But nothing contributes 4 | 
1458b more to produce a clearness of diction that is remote: 
from commonness than the lengthening, contraction, and 
alteration of words. For by deviating in exceptional 
cases from the normal idiom, the language will gain 
distinction ; while, at the same time, the partial con- 
formity with usage will give perspicuity. The critics, 5 
_ therefore, are in error who censure these licenses of 
speech, and hold the author up to ridicule. Thus 
Eucleides, the elder, declared that it would be an easy 
matter to be a poet if you might lengthen syllables at 
will. He caricatured the practice in the very form of 
his diction, as in the verse: 

84 XXII. 5—7. 1458 b 1o—27 

na / > 4 ’ \ 
10 Oavabde Badifovta, Kal “ovK av y épdpevos Tov éxeivou éd- 
\ , / / 
réBopov.” TO pev ovv haiverOai Tas ypwapmevoyv TOUTP TH 
, lal \ \ / \ € / > \ Lal 
TpoT@ yedotov: TO dé METPLOV KOLWOY aTrdvT@Y éoTl TOV pe 
al \ 4 a \ , \ a ” 
poav' Kal yap petadpopais Kal yAwTTais Kal Tos aAXoLS 
ByA 4 > a \ > / | ay \ al \ 
eldeou ypw@pevos ampeTa@s Kat éritndes emt Ta yEedoia TO 
a SN NM 5) / \ Ae / i / » A, 
15 aUTO av atrepydoaito. TO dé dpyotrov bcov Siadéper ert 
a > a / b] f ‘al / BJ e > 
Tov éTaV OewpeicOw évTiOewévwv TOY <KUpimy> dvoUaTwY eis 
\ / RK peeks. a , \ ina She, a“ Lal 
TO méTpov. Kal éml THS yAOTTHS Sé Kal ert TOV peTapopar 
» Vey: Bees | A ” > fa) \ A \ 4 2). Oe 
kal érl Tov GdXAwY eoy peTaTiOels av TUS TA KUPLA OVOMaTA 
, ¢ > nr / e \ oe, / > 
KaTioot OTL aAANOH Aéyouev: olov TO avTO ToLncaYTOS iap- 
n 4 , a / / 
20 Belov Aioydrov kal Kvpuridov, év 5é povov dvowa petabév- 
’ \ / > / a \ \ / \ 
Tos, avtl [kuplou] ewOotos yA@TTay, TO pév paiveTrar Kado 
A \ a 
To & evtehés. Aloyvros pev yap év TH PironrH hy erroince 
, > A / ? / / 
hayédawa <d> pov cdpkas éobier todos, 
e de 3 \ pene 6. \ fa a £0 \ 
0 O€ avtt Tod écOies TO Oowdrar petéOnKer. Kal 
n , 0 Oak x / \ by 5 \ \ > ea 
25 vov S€ pw éwv OAlyos TE Kal ovTLOaVOS Kal deLKnS, 
el Tus A€you TA KUpLa peTaTLOels 

n / ‘ME / ere \ 5) / 
vov 5é pw. é@y puxpos te Kal aoBewKos Kal aevdyjs: 

1 Odyss. ix. 515, viv 5é w’ édv ddlyos Te kal odridavds Kal dxckus. 

10. dv vy’ épduevos apogr.: dv yepdwevos A°: av yevoduevos Tyrwhitt: dy 
mpiduevos Gomperz ll. ws A®: daperads Twining: rdévrws Hermann 
12. pérpiov Spengel: érpov codd. 14. éxi ra apogr.: érera 
Ac éml 7a yehoia secl. Gomperz 15. apydrrov apogr.: dpuédr- 
tovros A®: dpuorrévrws Tucker 16. émév] érexrdcewy Tyrwhitt 

<«xuplwy> coni. Vahlen 19. iduBiov Ae 20. AloxtAw Evpumldouv 
Essen: Evpirldov cat Aloxvdov Richards perabévros Parisinus 20388, 
Ald. : peraribévros AS 21. aut xvplov aut elwOéros secludendum esse 
coni. Vahlen <xai> elw@éros Heinsius 23. payédawva 5 H Ritter: 
gayédawva Hapogr.: payddeva } A®: payédaway 4} Hermann: dayédaw’ det 
Nauck 25. dé wedw Ac decxjs Riccardianus 46 (‘ut non conveniat’ 
Arabs): devijs A®: &xixus (cum var. lect. decxyjs) Od. ix. 515 27. dé 
pew Ac paxpods dé AS 



"Emvydpny eidov Mapadavdde Badiforta, 

ovx adv y épdpevos Tov éxeivou édr€Bopor. 
To employ such license at all obtrusively is, no doubt, 6 
grotesque; but in any mode of poetic diction there 
must be moderation. Even metaphors, strange (or rare) 
words, or any similar forms of speech, would produce 
the like effect if used without propriety and with the 
express purpose of being ludicrous. How great a differ- 7 
ence is made by the appropriate use of lengthening, may 
be seen in Epic poetry by the insertion of ordinary forms 
in the verse. So, again, if we take a strange (or rare) 
word, esmetaphor, or any similar mode of expression, 
and replace it by the current or proper term, the truth 
of our observation will be manifest. For example 
Aeschylus and Euripides each composed the same iambic 
line. But the alteration of a single word by Euripides, 
who employed the rarer term instead of the ordinary 
one, makes one verse appear beautiful and the other 

trivial. Aeschylus in his Philoctetes says: 
payédawa <S> % pov cdpxas éobier todos: 
Euripides substitutes @owdarar ‘feasts on’ for écdiea 
‘feeds on.’ Again, in the line, 
vov dé pw éwy drdJyos Te Kal ovTLOavesS Kal deLKys, 
the difference will be felt if we substitute the common 

a , ? \ t 
vov 0€ pw éav piKpds Te Kal acOeviKds Kal deLdys. 

86 XXII. 7—10. 1458 b 28—1459 a 16 

Sigpov deixértov Katabels ortynyv te Tpamelar,' 
30 Sidpov poxOnpov xatabeis pixpdv te tpametav: 
/ 39 
Kal TO “Hdves Bodwow, ” Hroves Kpafovow. ere dé Apidpa- 8 
Sys TOS Tpaywdods exwmp@der, STL & ovdels Av eltroe ev TH Sia- 
NEKT@ TOUTOLS YpavTat, olov TO SwuaTwY dro GNA 1) 
b) \ / \ \ / \ \ ee" / \ \ 
avo dopadtov, kal TO céOev Kal TO eyo Sé vw Kal Td 
59a AyiAréws mépe GAA py Trepl “AyirAréas, kal doa adra 
a \ \ \ \ 9 > a / aN \ 
TotavTa.' Sua yap TO pn eivas év Tols KuptoLs Totel TO WH 

? \ 5] ial / e \ fa) > Lal \ a 
idvwtixov ev TH A€éEEL Atravta Ta ToLadTa* éxelvos dé TOUTO 


/ BA \ / \ \ / lal > / / 
nyvoe. éotiy Sé péya pev TO ExdoT@ TOY eipnuévav TpeTrov- 
n a / 
5 Tas yphnola, Kal Sitdois dvowace Kal yAw@TTaLs, TOAD Sé 
/ a 
péytoTov TO weTapopiKoY Eival. povoyv yap TovTO oUTE Tap’ 
ro , al 
adnrov éotr AaBeiv evpvias te onpetov éott+ TO yap ev 
/ \ \ al > n ARE: / \ 
petadépe TOTO duotov Oewpeiv éotiv. Tov 5 dvopdTtwy Ta 10 
na Ld val fal 
pev Sutra pdduota apporrer Tots SulupdpBors, ai dé yA@TTaL 
a e a e \ \ a > / \ b 
10 Tois HpwsKois, ai 5é petapopal trois iapPelow. Kal év 
pev Tois HpwcKots atravta yphou.a Ta eipnuéva, év O€ Tois 
/ a a 
iapBelors Sia TO Stet pdrdsota réEW pupetoOar TadTa ap- 
/ fa > x / 
poTTe. TOY ovoydtav boos Kav év Royous Tis YXpr- 
a f We _ / 
calito got O¢ TA TOLAVTA TO KUpLOV Kal peTahopa Kal KOo[LOS. 
an a / 
15 Wepl pev ovv Tpaywdias Kal THs ev TO TpatTew pipny- 

val \ 4 
gews EcTM Huiv iKava TA Eipnuéva. 

1 Odyss. xx. 259, Sippov decxédov Karabels dAlynv re Tpdrefary. 
2 [liad xvii. 265. 

29. decxétovy Parisinus 2038, coni. Susemihl: 7’ deucé\covy AC: 7° aixéduov 

Vahlen 31. 7d twves Bodow 7 twves AC 32, elmo: apogr.: elmne 
Ac 1459 a 4. 7d apogr.: rau AS 10 et 12. lapBios Ac 13. Kav 
Riccardianus 46: kat A° bcos post év add, AC: om. apogr.: Trois 

Gomperz: ddo%s 2, ut videtur (Ellis) Tis apogr. ; TL Ae 


Or, if for the line, 

Sidpov devxédvov Katabels ddiynv te Tpamelay, 
we read, 

Sigpov poxOnpov xatabels puxpdv te Tpamelav. 

Or, for judves Bodwow, jidves Kpafovor. 

Again, Ariphrades ridiculed the tragedians for using s 
phrases which no one would employ in ordinary speech : 
for example, dwpudtwv do instead of dro Swpdaror, 

1459 2 oé0en, éya 5é vv, “AytdAdéws sréps instead of Tept 
"Axyidréws, and the like. It is precisely because such 
phrases are not part of the current idiom that they 
give distinction to the style. This, however, he failed 
to see, 

It is a great matter to observe propriety in these 9 
several modes of expression, as also in compound words, 
strange (or rare) words, and so forth. But the greatest 
thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. This’ 
alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of 
genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for 

Of the various kinds of words, the compound are 10 
best adapted to dithyrambs, rare words to heroic poetry, 
metaphors to iambic. In heroic poetry, indeed, all 
these varieties are serviceable. But in iambic verse, 
which reproduces, as far as may be, familiar speech, the 
most appropriate words are those which are found even 
in prose. These are,—the current or proper, the meta- 
phorical, the ornamental. 

Concerning Tragedy and imitation by means. of 
action this may suffice. 

88 XXIII. 1—3. 1459 a 17—1459b 1 

XXIII Ilept 8é rhs Sunynwatinhs kav Ev<b> pétp@ popntiras, 
54 Py a \ 50 6 sf > a YA , 
ore det Tovs wvOovs KaOdrrep év Tais Tpayediais curLieTavat 
Spapatixods Kal rep piav mpakw ornv Kal tedrelav, éyovoay 

20 apyny Kal wéoa Kal Tédos, iv Batep Coov ev Odov Toh TV 
oiKelay Hdovny, Shrov, kal pa opotas icropiais Tas our- 
Bécers clvar, dv als avdynn ody) pds mpdkews movetcOas 
SyAwow adr évds ypovov, dca ev ToUT@ cuvéBH Tepl Eva 
7) THelous, OY ExacTov ws eruxev Eyer Tpds GAANAA. BoTrEp 2 

25 yap KaTa Tovs avTod’s ypdvous } T ev Larapive éyéveTo 
vavpayia Kal % év LuKeria Kapyndoviav payn ovddéey 
Tpos TO avTo cuvtetvovoas TédoS, OTH Kal év Tois ehekis 
xpovois éviore yiverar Odtepov peta Odtepov, cE ay ev 
ovdéev yivetas TéXos. ayeddv 8€ of TroAAOL TOY ToLNTaY TODTO 

30 Spaot. S10, womep elropev HOn, Kal tatty Oeoméowos avs 
davein “Opnpos mapa tods aAdous, TH pNde TOV TOAEMOV 

/ 4 > \ . A b] 2 a a e/ 
KalTep €XovTa apynv Kal TéAOS EmTrLYELPHoaL ToLely OXOV* 
Aiav yap av péyas Kab ovK evovvorrtos Ewerrev EceoOat, 
n TO peyéer petpidlovta Katamemrcypévoy TH TovKtig. 

35 vov 8 ev pépos amrordaBov émevoodiows Kéypntar avTav 
monAols, olov vedv KaTadoyw Kal addols eretcodiots, ols 
SiarapBaver tiv toinow. of & adda tept &va Tovovcr 

\ } 4 / \ , n a e 

1459p Kal tepl Eva ypovoy Kal pilav mpakiy modupeph, olov o 
17. xdv évt pérpw scripsi (cf. 1449 b 11, 1459 b 32): Kal év pérpy codd. 

18. ocuvicrava A®: ovvesrdva coni. Vahlen 20. movet AS 21. dpolas 
tcroplats ras cuvvOéoes Dacier (confirmat aliquatenus Arabs): opolas ioroptacs 

ras owO@hoes Riccardianus 46: duolas toroplas ras ovvjOes codd.: olas 
icroplas Tas cuvHbers M‘Vey 22. efvac] Octvas Bywater . 25. Zaraplvy 

Ac 26. vavpaxla apogr.: vatuaxos A& 28. wera Odrepov Parisinus 
2038, coni. Castelvetro: mera Oarépov A& 31. 7r@ Riccardianus 16 : 7d 

Ac 33-84, péya (rec. corr. uéyas)—evovvorros—perpidfovra A®: pwéya— 

ebotvorrov—perplatov Bursian 35. a’rév secl. Christ: airod Heinsius 
36. ols Riccardianus 16; dls pr. A® 


XXIII As to that poetic imitation which is narrative imoPic 
form and employs a single metre, the plot manifestly ~~~ 
ought, as in a tragedy, to be constructed on dramatic 
principles. It should have for its subject a single 
action, whole and complete, with a beginning, a middle, 
and anend. It will thus resemble a living organism 
in all its unity, and produce the pleasure proper to 
it. It will differ in structure from historical composi- 
tions, which of necessity present not a single action, 
but a single period, and all that happened within 
that period to one person or to many, little connected 
together as the events may be. For as the sea-fight at 2 
Salamis and the battle with the Carthaginians in Sicily 
took place at the same time, but did not tend to any one 
result, so in the sequence of events, one thing sometimes 
follows another, and yet no single result is thereby 
produced. Such is the practice, we may say, of 
most poets. Here again, then, as has been already 3 
observed, the transcendent excellence of Homer is 
manifest. He never attempts to make the whole war of 
Troy the subject of his poem, though that war had a 
beginning and an end. It would have been too vast a 
theme, and not easily embraced in a single view. If, 
again, he had kept it within moderate limits, it must 
have been over-complicated by the variety of the in- 
cidents. As it is, he detaches a single portion, and 
admits as episodes many events from the general story 
of the war—such as the Catalogue of the ships and 
others—thus diversifying the poem. All other poets 

1459b take a single hero, a single period, or an action single 
indeed, but with a multiplicity of parts. Thus did the 


90 XXIII. 4—XXIV. 4. 1459 b 2—24 

ta Kumpia toujcas Kal Thy poxpav “Idudda. Touyapody éx 4 
bd] a 
pev “Idtddos Kal ‘Odvaceias pia tpayodia toeira éxa- 
tépas 7 Svo povar, éx S&¢ Kumpiwv moddal xab tis pm- 
5 Kpas “Iduddos [wAéov] oxTd, ofov Srdwv Kpiows, PidoKTN- 
7s, Neomroreuos, Evpirudos, mrwyeia, Adxawat, ‘Idiov 
mépots Kal amomdous [kal Livov Kal Tpwddes]. 
XXIV "Ere b€ Ta edn taba det éyew THY érroTrotiay TH Tpaye- 
Sia, i) yap amdHy 7 wemreypévny 7) HOcKHY 7) TwaOnTiKHY: 
1oxal Ta pépn Ew perdotrovias kal OYrews TavTa’ Kal yap 
mepiTeTet@v Set Kal avayvwpicewy Kal Twa0npatov’ étt 
Tas Svavoias Kal thy réEw Eyew Karas. ols dmacw 2 
"( 4 \ rn Es n \ \ \ 
HNpos KeypnTaL Kal TpOTos Kal iKayas. Kal yap Kal 
a 4 e 7 f € \ *T a ¢ a 
TOV Tompatev éxatepov cuvéotnxey 7 pev “T\tas amdodv 
15 Kal maOntixov, » S€ ‘Odtocea TemTreypévov (avayvepiots 
yap Su0rov) Kal HOiKH* mpos yap TovTous réEeL Kal Svavola 
mavta vmrepBéBrnkev. Siadéper S€ Kata Te THs TveTAcEwS 3 
TO MAKOS h erroTrovia Kal TO MéTPOV. TOU meV Od pKOUS Gpos 
e ST ae , . O07 \ A a \ > \ 
ixavos o etpnuévos’ Sivacbat yap Set cvvopacOatr thy apy 
20Kkal TO Tédos. ln O Av TODTO, ci TOY pev apyaiwy édarT- 

e / 3 \ \ \ a an al 
Tous ai cvaoTdcess elev, mpos dé TO TAHOOS Tpaywdiav Tov 


> / > t f sf 54 \ \ \ 
eis pilav axpoacw TiWepévav TapyKoev. yer Sé pos TO 

/ / \ 
érexteiverOar TO péyeOos TodAv TL 1) érroTrotia idvov Sia 

\ > \ a f ‘\ > 4 ee 4 
TO év ev TH Tpayodia py évdéxecOar aya mpaTTomeva 

1459 b 2. Kumpia Reiz: xvmpixa Ae 4. Ae 5 et 7. mdéor 
et kal XLivwr cal Tpwddes secl. Hermann 7. mpwiddes pr. A® (7 sup. ser. 
m. rec.) 8, ér dé bis A& det apogr.: Oy A° 9. 7OcKiy om. 
z 11. kat 70av post dvayrwploewv add. Susemihl 13. ixavés apogr. : 
ixavds A 14. mrovnudrwv Ac 15. dvayvwptoes Christ 16. 7OcKdv 
corr. rec. m. A® yap Ac: dé apogr. 17, mdvras apogr. 21. mpds 
dé apogr.: mpbcBe AS 7d ante rpaywdidov add. Tucker 22. fort. 

kaQieuévwv Richards 


author of the Cypria and of the Little Iliad. For this 4 
reason the Iliad and the Odyssey each furnish the 
subject of one tragedy, or, at most, of two; while the 
Cypria supplies materials for many, and the Little Iliad 
for eight—the Award of the Arms, the Philoctetes, the 
Neoptolemus, the Eurypylus, the Mendicant Odysseus, 
the Laconian Women, the Fall of Ilium, the Departure 
of the Fleet. 

XXIV Again, Epic poetry must have as many kinds as 
Tragedy: it must be simple, or complex, or ‘ ethical,’ 
or ‘pathetic.’ The parts also, with the exception of 
song and spectacle, are the same; for it requires 
Reversals of the Situation, Recognitions, and Scenes of 
Suffering. Moreover, the thoughts and the diction must 2 
be artistic. In all these respects Homer is our earliest 
and sufficient model. Indeed each of his poems has a 
twofold character. The Iliad is at once simple and 
‘pathetic, and the Odyssey complex (for Recognition 
scenes run through it), and at the same time ‘ethical.’ 
Moreover, in diction and thought they are supreme. 

Epic poetry differs from Tragedy in the scale on3 
which it is constructed, and in its metre. As regards 
scale or length, we have already laid down an adequate 
limit :—the beginning and the end must be capable of 
being brought within a single view. This condition 
will be satisfied by poems on a smaller scale than the 
old epics, and answering in length to the group of 
tragedies presented at a single sitting. 

Epic poetry has, however, a great—a apadiation 4 
capacity for enlarging its dimensions, and we can see the 
reason. In Tragedy we cannot imitate several lines of 

92 XXIV. 4—7. 1459 b 25—1460a 8 

\ f a \ n a A 
25 TOAAa Mépn plpetoOar GANA TO éml THS TKNVAS Kal TOV 
e a / / 3 \ “a » / \ \ / 
UroKpiT@v pépos povov: év Sé TH étroTrouia Sia TO Sujynow 
> 4 4 iA n / €¢ 4? 42 
civat EoTL TOAAA pépn Aya Toveivy Tepaivopeva, Vp OV 
> / 4 + e an / 4 e na? 
oikelwy OvT@y av&eTaL 0 TOU TroLnpaTOS GyKOS. WaTE TOUT 
4 \ > 
éyev TO ayabov els peyadotpérevav Kal TO weTaBddrEw TOV 

b / A / \ \ 
30 akovovTa Kal émrEercodLody ayomoios émrEetcodlols* TO Yap 

i | 

4 \ a b / a \ bu \ be 
, ON ve \ ee a / ef ? / b 
La ye \ , an A a 
aro Til pétp@ Sunynuatixyny pinot trovotto } év ToANXois, 
> \ xX f \ \ ¢e \ A \ 
amperes av Pawolto' TO yap NpwlLKOY oTATLLwTATOV Kal 

b] / a / 

35 OyKwdéoTaToV TOY éeTpaV éoTtiv (O10 Kal yAM@TTas Kal peTa- 
\ dé lA x ‘\ \ \ 4 e 8 
opas déyetat waddiota* TepiTTH yap Kal <TavTn> 1) Sunyn- 

\ / a a 
paTiKn piunow Tv ardowv). TO Sé tawBelov Kal TeTpa- 
: t \ NESS \ \ $2 / ov 
> , > vf > / ef / \ 
ATOT@TEPOV, EL pultyvvoL Tis avTd, WoTrep Xaipynuwv. 810 
> \ \ / a. / x a e¢ t 5) 5 
ovdels waxpav cvoTacw év GXXw TeTOinKEY 7) TO POM, AXX 
4 y” PO, GAR, 3 4 8 5 , \ e / AAT. 
@oTrep elTropmev avTH 7 hvows SiddoKe TO apyorroy [avTH| 
al LA a 
5 [dvlatipetoOar. “Opmnpos dé ddra Te TONKA akvos erratveta Oat 7 
\ Py a / a n > > aad 8 ie SF a 
Kal 6) Kal OTL pmovos TOY ToLNT@Y OVK aryVoEt O Set TroLEty 
> d 2-3 K \ é a \ \ / / > / 
avTov. avTov yap Set TOY TroLNTHY eXayLoTA EyELY* OV yap 

A / \ A > 

29. fort. [7rd] dya0dv Bywater 33. Sunynuarixhy apogr.: dinynrixhy AS 
36. post cat add. ra’ry Twining: ryét Tucker 37. plunots apogr. : 
klynots AS lawBlov Ac 1460 a l. kewnrixkdé Ald.: xwnrixai AS: 

kwyrika Kal Riccardianus 46, Vahlen 2. puyvior Parisinus 2038: pryvder 
apogr. : unyvin Ao (fuit wh, et » extremum in litura): wh yvoln = (ef. Arab. 
* si quis nesciret’) 3. TH] 7d AS 4, a’rn apogr.: airy A®: secl, 
Gomperz 5. alpetoOac Bonitz (confirmare videtur Arabs): dcarpetobar A® ; 
del aipetoOar Tucker 



actions carried on at one and the same time; we must 
confine ourselves to the action on the stage and the part 
taken by the players. But in Epic poetry, owing to the 
narrative form, many events simultaneously transacted 
can be presented; and these, if relevant to the subject, 
add mass and dignity to the poem. The Epic has here 
an advantage, and one that conduces to grandeur of 
effect, to diverting the mind of the hearer, and relieving 
the story with varying episodes. For sameness of 
incident soon produces satiety, and makes tragedies fail 
on the stage. 

As for the metre, the heroic measure has proved its 5 
fitness by the test of experience. If a narrative poem 
in any other metre or in many metres were now com- 
posed, it would be found incongruous. For of all 
measures the heroic is the stateliest and the most 
massive; and hence it most readily admits rare words 
and metaphors, which is another point in which the 
narrative form of imitation stands alone. On the other 

1460a hand, the iambic and the trochaic tetrameter are stirring 
measures, the latter being akin to dancing, the former 
expressive of action. Still more absurd would it be to 6 
mix together different metres, as was done by Chaeremon. 
Hence no one has ever composed a poem on a great scale 
in any other than heroic verse. Nature herself, as we 
have said, teaches the choice of the proper measure. 

Homer, admirable in all respects, has the special merit 7 
of being the only poet who rightly appreciates the part 
he should take himself. The poet should speak as little 
as possible in his own person, for it is not this that makes 
him an imitator. Other poets appear themselves upon 

94 XXIV. 7—10. 1460 a 9—28 

ayovivovrar, prmodvtas S€ ddlya Kal oruyaKws' oO Sé orjiya 

10 Ppotpacdpevos evOds eiadyer avdpa i) yuvaika i) GdXo TH 

[400s] cal oddév’ ann arn éyovta HOn. Set pev ody ev Tals 8 

f a \ / a Le | / > 
Tpaywdiats rovty TO Cavyacrov, wadrov 8 évdéyeTrar év 
A > A \ 
TH €motrovia TO ddoyov, Ss 0 cupBaiver waddiota TO Oav- 
, 8 \ \ ANS ett > \ / 2 \ \ \ 
pactov, Sud TO py Opay eis TOY MpaTToVTa: érel TA TreEpl 
/ / ‘al x 
15 TV “Extopos Siwkiw ert oxnvis dvta yerota av havein, of 
\ € ca \ > , e A ia? 4 b \ a 
pev éEoT@Tes Kal ov Si@KovTEs, 0 S€ avavevwv, év Sé Tois 
: \ / a 
évreowv NavOdvet. TO dé Oavpacroy 750° onuetov bé* TavTes 
yap mpootiWévtes arrayyédXovow ws yapifopevor. Sedidayev 
/ lel Lal 
5é pddiota “Opnpos Kal tods aANous >Wevdh Aéyeu ws Sel. 
4 \ a / ” \ bd 4 
20 €aTt O€ TOUTO Tapadoyiomos. olovTat yap avOpwtroL, Stay 
\ 54 i SR COR / / > \ of »” 
Tovol GvTos TOOL H 7) yLvopuevou yivntat, eb TO DaTepoy éoTLV, 
‘epee, t 5 wer, : a a a ey 
Kal TO TpoTepov eivat }) yiverOas" TodTO Sé ott Wevdos. 10 
/ x \ a a > > Qs / ” b] / 
57, av TO Tp@Tov >reddos, GAN ovdé, TOUTOU dVTOS, avayKN 
a BI / a x aA 
<Kakelvo> eivat } yevéeo Oat [| mpocbeivar: Sua yap TO ToUTO 
7O/ > Pe , Cue € \ \ \ a 
25 eldévat adnés dv, Taparoyiferas Hua 7 Wuyn Kal TO TPATOV 
e BA / \ / b] a / a , 
@s dv. Tapddevypwa Sé TovTou éx Tov Nimtpwv. mpoatpetc bai 
a / a / 
Te de? GOUvaTacixoTa madXov t) Suvata aTriPava: Tovs Te NOYOUS 

pn ouvicoracba éx pepdv adoyov, GAA paddwoTa meV pN- 

11. 400s codd., =: secl. Reiz: efdos Bursian ovdév’ ahOn Vettori: ovdevanOn 

Urbinas 47: ovédéva On AS On| fort. 400s Christ Kav Tais 
Gomperz 13. ddoyov Vettori: dvddoyor codd., = d’ 6 Parisinus 
2038, coni. Vettori: 6d codd. cett. 14. éwel apogr.: @rera A%, = 
21. rod didvros pr. AS Tool 7 7) apogr.: 7d de’ fw pr. A® (7d dt 7} corr. 
rec. mm.) 23. 6] Se? Riccardianus 46, Bonitz &dXov dé Ac 
(aAX’ od5é corr. rec. m.): dAdo dé codd. Robortelli: d\dko 8 8 Vahlen: 
ado, 6 Christ 23-24. cum verbis d\n obbé—dvdyxn—mpocbecivar con- 

tulerim Rhet. i. 2. 13. 1357 a 17, day yap G re Todrwy yrdpiyov, obde Set 
Aéyew* abrds yap Tobro mpoorlOnow 6 dxpoarhs, et 18, 7d 5’ Sri crepavirys Td 

Odvumia, 0v5E Sel mpocOciva 24. xdxetvo add. Tucker # secl. 
Bonitz: 7 Vahlen: #v Tucker 26. rov’rov codex Robortelli: roiro A*%: 

rovrwy apogr.; Todro <7d> Spengel virrpw Ae 



the scene throughout, and imitate but little and rarely. 
Homer, after a few prefatory words, at once brings in 
a man, or woman, or other personage; none of them 
wanting in characteristic qualities, but each with a 
character of his own. 

The element of the wonderful is required in Tragedy. 8 
The irrational, on which the wonderful depends for its 
chief effects, has wider scope in Epic poetry, because there 
the person acting is not seen. Thus, the pursuit of 
Hector would be ludicrous if placed upon the stage—the 
Greeks standing still and not joining in the pursuit, and 
Achilles waving them back. But in the Epic poem the 
absurdity passes unnoticed. Now the wonderful is 
pleasing: as may be inferred from the fact that every 
one tells a story with some addition of his own, 
knowing that his hearers like it. It is Homer whos 
has chiefly taught other poets the art of telling lies 
skilfully. The secret of it lies in a fallacy. For, 
assuming that if one thing is or becomes, a second is 
or becomes, men imagine that, if the second is, the first 
likewise is or becomes. But this is a false inference. 
Hence, where the first thing is untrue, it is quite un- 
necessary, provided the second be true, to add that the 
first is or has become, For the mind, knowing the 
second to be true, falsely infers the truth of the first. 
There is an example of this in the Bath Scene of the 

Accordingly, the poet should prefer probable im- 10 
possibilities to improbable possibilities. The tragic plot 
must not be composed of irrational parts. Everything 

96 XXIV. 1o—XXV. 2. 1460 a 29—1460 b 12 

, a 
dév Eyew aroyov, eb Sé pH, Ew Tod pvOetparTos, doTep 
4 a e U4 
30 OiSizrous TO wn eidévar THs 0 Adtos aréOavev, GNA pr) ev 
a 4 > 4 e \ 4 
TO Spduwatt, worrep ev "Hréxtpa ot ta UWvOca amrayyédrov- 
a 4 
Tes, ) év Muaois 0 ddwvos éx Teyéas eis tHv Muciavy hewv- 
ef \ 4 ic DIE x bd a a bd bd a 
@oTe TO Néyeww OTL avynpyto ay 0 miOos yedoiov: &E apyis 
\ > 8 al / 0 / x be a \ / 
yap ov det auvictacbas TovovTous. av 5é On Kal dhaivntas 
> / > dé 0 \ ¥ ” . bd \ \ \ > 
35 eUAoywTépws, évdéyerOar Kal dtoTov <dv>* érrel Kal Ta év 
"Odvoceia Goya Ta Tepl THY ExOeow ws ovK av Hv averTa 
a : A 4 / a 
1460» OffAov Ay yévorTo, cb a’Ta PavAs ToinTHs Townoee viv dé 
a al ¢ : 
Tois ddAos ayabois o Tmoutns apaviter Ndvvwv TO dTOTOP. 
a \ a a al al / 
TH Sé reEe Set Svatrovety év Tots apyots pépecwv Kal pune 11 
b fa) a / 8 a > 4 \ rs ¢ / 
nOtxois ponte SvavonteKols* atroxpvTTeEL yap Taduv % Alay 
5 Aaumrpa réEis Ta Te 70m Kal Tas Siavoias. 
XXV Ilept d€ mpoBdAnudrav Kal AvoEwv, éx Tocwr Te Kab 
, PANE! > €@Q RK a / > oN / 
Tolwy eloav éotiw, @S av Oewpovow yévour av pavepor. 
> \ / > \ e \ e \ / ” 
eTel yap EoTL pLLuNTHS O TrounTHS w@aTrepavel Cwypados H Tis 
” > / Si WP a a bY \ b) 
aNNos EiKoVOTTOLOS, avayKn pipetoOar TpLOVY OVTw@Y TOV apt- 
10 Ouov év Te del, 7) yap ola Hv 7 Eotwv, old hacw Kal Soxei, 
n a > / 
) ola elvat Sei. taidta 8 é£aryyédreras réEer <7) Kupiois 2 

/ a 
dvopaciw> 1) Kal yAOTTaLs Kal peTahopais* Kal TOAAA TaOH 

30. <é6> Oldlrouvs Bywater: Olélrov Tucker Adcsos Riccardianus 16: 
téraos A®: iddaos cett. 33. dvjpero AS 35. dmodéxecOar apogr. 
dromov <dv> scripsi: 7d drorov Par. 2038 : dromov codd. cett. d&romov 

quidem pro drorév 7: nonnunquam usurpari solet, e.g. drorev moiety (Dem. 
F.L. § 71, 337), dromov r\éyav (Plat. Symp. 1754); sed in hoe loco vix 
defendi potest ea locutio 1460 b 1. roujoece Riccardianus 46, Heinsius: 
mojoe codd.: émrolncev Spengel 5. rdé re] Ta dé AC 7. Toiwy 
apogr. : molwy dy Ac 9. rov dpiOudv (vel To dpiOu@) apogr.: Tdv dpiOudv 
Ac 11. # ofa apogr.: ofa A° <j Kuptos évéuacw> coni. Vahlen: 
<j xvuplg> Gomperz 12. xai do’ Ga dy voni. Vahlen 


irrational should, if possible, be excluded; or, at all 
events, it should lie outside the action of the play (as, 
in the Oedipus, the hero’s ignorance as to the manner 
of Laius’ death); not within the drama,—as in the 
Electra, the messenger’s account of the Pythian games ; 
or, as in the Mysians, the man who has come from Tegea 
to Mysia and is still speechless. The plea that otherwise 
the plot would have been ruined, is ridiculous; such a 
plot should not in the first instance be constructed. 
But once the irrational has been introduced and an air 
of likelihood imparted to it, we must accept it in spite of 
the absurdity. Take even the irrational incidents in the 
Odyssey, where Odysseus is left upon the shore of Ithaca. 
How intolerable even these might have been would be 
apparent if an inferior poet were to treat the subject. 

u460b As it is, the absurdity is veiled by the poetic charm 
with which the poet invests it. 

The diction should be elaborated in the pauses of 11 
the action, where there is no expression of character 
or thought. For, conversely, character and thought are 
merely obscured by a diction that is over brilliant. 

XXV With respect to critical difficulties and their solu- 
tions, the number and nature of the sources from which 
they may be drawn may be thus exhibited. 

The poet being an imitator, like a painter or any 

other artist, must of necessity imitate one of three 

objects things as they were or are, things as they are 

said or thought to be, or things as they ought to be.| 

The vehicle of expression is language,—either current 2 

terms or, it may be, rare words or metaphors. There 

are also many modifications of language, which we 

98 XXV. 3—6. 1460 b 13—34 

THs NéEcws oti, Sidouev yap Tav’Ta Tots Towntais. pos dé 3 
fal »O\ »” / \ a > A \ An 
TounTiKHs ovdé aAANS TéXVNS Kal ToLNTLKHS. avTHs dé THs 
rn \ € / € \ \ > € 4 ¢ \ 
Toutixns SuTtn auaptia, » perv yap Kal avTny, 1) Sé Kata 
/ > \ / / \ 
cupBeBnkos. eb pev yap <TL> TpoeiheTo pupnoacBat, <p 4 
> ca » eae J / > b] / 2 7 4 / > \ 
opOds dé éusunoato Su > advvauiav, avdTijs 7) dwaptias et Oé 
T® TpoedéoOa pn GpOads, Gra Tov taTov <ap'> audw TA 
SeEia mpoBeBAnKOTa, 7) TO Kal? Exdotny Téyvny apapTnua 
\ > 3 \ x » / A. -9 / / 
olov TO KaT iatpiKny 7) aAXnY Téexvyv [i) advvaTa TeTroinTaL] 
OTroLavoory, ov Kal’ éauTHnv. Bote Sel TA ErriTYNpaTa ev TOs 
Tpos avTny Thy Téexvnv: ei adUVaTA TeTOiNTAL, hudpTnTaL 
b] > 9 a ” > / a / a \ \ 
GNN opOas Exel, Eb TUYYavEL TOU TEdOUS TOU aUTIS (To yap 
réros elpntar), et OUTMS EKTANKTLK@TEpOD 1) AUTO 7) AXo Trove’ 

/ / 4 ac / > r \ / 
pépos. mapadevypa % Tov “Exropos Siwkss. et wévTor TO TEXOS 
}) padrrov 7} <p> rtov évedéyeto Urrdpyew Kal KaTa THY 

\ ¥. / e a b b] la) a \ > 2 
mept TovTwy Téxyny, [juapthabar] ov opOads: Sei yap ei év- 
déyetar Srws pndaun twaptncOar. ete wotrépwy éotl TO 
€ / a \ \ / x 7 ae 
Kos; €daTTov yap e pa yder STL EXados Onreva Képata 

> 4 x A / ” \ de / a) 
ovk eyes t eb apupntos eyparpev. mpos dé TovToIs éay 6 

al a b a 
erriTiarat OTL ovK adNOR, GAN tows <a@s> Sei—oiov kal 

17. re addidi wh bp0Gs—d’ addidi: <dp0ds, juapre 5’ ev TO ppt- 
cacOa 5’ > coni. Vahlen 18. ef apogr.: 7 A° 19. r@ corr. Parisinus 
2038 (Bywater): 7d A°: <dia> 7d Ueberweg dy’ add. Vahlen 

21. 4 ddtvara wemolnrm secl. Diintzer: dd’vara merolnra (deleto 4) post 
éroavody traiecit Christ 22. dmrolay div A°: droavodv vulg.: droit’ av ody 
Bywater: droaody Winstanley 23. 7a(el sup. scr.m.rec.)A® 24. ef add. 
Parisinus 2038 : om. cett. 25. airfjsapogr.: avrfjsA® 26, elpnrac] etpyra 
Heinsius: rypetrac M. Schmidt 28. 4 <ph> Frrov Ueberweg: Frrov 
Ac: 4 frrov corr. A® apogr. 29. tuapricda (uaprfjc@a pr. A°) secl. 
Bywater, Ussing: qudprnra Ald.: <ph> taprijca, Tucker, interpunctione 
mutata 32. ele. (7 sup. scr. m. rec.) A® 33. 4] » pr. Ae el 
dpuphrws] n dpumrArws (corr, Kdurunrws) Ac 34. <dws> coni. Vahlen 


concede to the poets. Add to this, that the standard of 3 
correctness is not the same in poetry and politics, any 
more than in poetry and any other art. Within the art 
of poetry itself there are two kinds of faults,—those 

which touch its essence, and those which are accidental. 
If a poet has chosen to imitate something, <but has 4 
imitated it incorrectly> through want of capacity, the 
error is inherent in the poetry. But if the failure is 
due to a wrong choice—if he has represented a horse 
as throwing out both his off legs at once, or introduced 
technical inaccuracies in medicine, for example, or in 
any other art—the error is not essential to the poetry. 
These are the points of view from which we should 
consider and answer the objections raised by the 

First as to matters which concern the poet’s own 5 
art. If he describes the impossible, he is guilty of 
an error; but the error may be justified, if the end 
of the art be thereby attained (the end being that 
already mentioned),—if, that is, the effect of this or 
any other part of the poem is thus rendered more 
striking. A case in point is the pursuit of Hector. 
If, however, the end might have been as well, or better, 
attained without violating the special rules of the poetic 
art, the error is not justified: for every kind of error 
should, if possible, be avoided. 

Again, does the error touch the essentials of the 
poetic art, or some accident of it? For example,—not 
to know that a hind has no horns is a less serious matter 
than to paint it inartistically. 

Further, if it be objected that the description is not 6 


1461 a 




100 XXV. 6—10. 1460 b 35—1461 a 16 

a \ \ - a val \ 
Lopoxrns ey adds pev olovs Set rrovetv, Evpuridny 8 ofor 
4 \ / 
elaiv—rtavtTyn AvTEéov. et d€ pNdeTépas, STL OTM daciv: olor 7 
a > n 
Ta Tept Gedy: icws yap ovTe BEXTLOV OUT@ AéyeW, OUT ANON, 
GXN <ei> étvyev WoTrep Eevopdver: adr otv dact. Ta be 
laws ov Bédtiov pév, GAN’ ovTas eixyev, olov Ta Tepl TOV 
f a ” , 
OTA, “ éyyea 5€ oduv 6pP éri cavpwrtijpos: | obtw yap TOT 
> Ore 4 ef \ a dt | / \ be a a x \ 
evoufov, wotrep Kai viv IdXdvptoi. rept 5é TOD KAaNDS 7) [47) 8 
a Ne f / f 
Kaos 7) elpntal Tin 1) TwémpaKTat, ov povoy oKETTTEOV Eis 
ae .% \ / x > / / > 5 a aA 
avTo TO TeTpayyévov 7) eipnuévov Br€Trovta ei aTovdaioy 7 
a > \ \ > \ / XK / \ a x 
pavror, aXrXa Kal Els TOY TPAaTTOVTA 7 EYOTA, Tpos OV 7 
XK x / a / / 
dre 7) OT@ 7 ov Evexev, olov 4 peifovos ayabod, iva yé- 
x / a / > , \ \ \ A 
vntat,  pelCovos Kaxod, iva atroyévntat. Ta dé Tpos THY Y 
fal lal / fal \ fal 
AéEw opovta Sei Siadrvew, olov yAwOTTH “ ovphas pev TPO- 
\ / / \ 
tov: * tcws yap ov Tovs tusovous Aéyer GAA Tos HU- 

ce 3 

/ 9 \ Mee 

Aakas, Kat TOV AdAwva “ ds fp” 7 Tou eidos pev Env KaKds,” 
> \ n b] , by \ \ / > t \ 
\ > \ ¢ a > t a aes Oe t 
yap evetdés of Kpnres evrrpocwrov Kadovou Kal TO “ fapo- 

39 ” / 
tepov 6€ Képace” * od TO axpatov ws oivodrvEw adda TO 

Oatrov. ta dé Kata petadhopar elpnrat, olov “ mavTes mév 10 
fe ra 

1 Tliad x. 152. 2 Ib. i. 50. 
® 16. x,'816, 4 Ib. ix. 208. 

85. Evpurlény Heinsius: evpuridys codd. (tuetur Gomperz, cf. 1448 a 36 
aOnvato codd.) 37. otrw Riccardianus 16, corr. Vaticanus 1400: ore 
A®; om. Parisinus 2038 1461 a1. <ei> coni. Vahlen Eevoddver vel 
Eevodayns apogr.: Eevopdvn AC: rapa Revoddver Ritter: <ol wepl> Revoddyyn 
Tucker obv Tyrwhitt: of A°: otrw Spengel pact. ra 5é Spengel : 
pact rade. Ae 6. ef apogr.: # Aé 7. distinxi post Aéyorra 

<> mpds dv Carroll 8. ofov 7 A®: ofoy ef apogr. 9. # add. 
corr. A® apogr. 12. 8s p’ 4% ro Vahlen: ws pyro (corr. m. rec. p’) A°: 
bs fd Toe apogr. énv apogr.: ef fv Ae 15. xépac éov 7d pr. AS 
16. 7a Spengel: 7d A& mavtes Grafenhan: d\\o A et Homerus 


true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply,—‘ But the 
objects are as they ought to be’: just as Sophocles said 
that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as 
they are. In this way the objection may be met. If,7 
however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet 
may answer,—‘ This is how men say the thing is. This 
applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that 
these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to 

14612 fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of 
them. But anyhow, ‘this is what is said’ Again, a 
description may be no better than the fact: ‘still, it was 
the fact’; as in the passage about the arms: ‘ Upright 
upon their butt-ends stood the spears. This was the 
custom then, as it now is among the Illyrians. 

Again, in examining whether what has been said or 8 
done by some one is poetically right or not, we must 
not look merely to the particular act or saying, and ask 
whether it is poetically good or bad. We must also con- 
sider by whom it is said or done, to whom, when, by 
what means, or for what end ; whether, for instance, it 
be to secure a greater good, or avert a greater evil. 

Other difficulties may be resolved by due regard to 9 
the usage of language. We may note a rare word, as in 
ouphas péev mpatov, where the poet perhaps employs 
ovpjas not in the sense of mules, but of sentinels. So, 
again, of Dolon : ‘ill-favoured indeed he was to look upon.’ 

It is not meant that his body was ill-shaped, but that his 
face was ugly; for the Cretans use the word evevdés, 
‘well-favoured,’ to denote a fair face. Again, Swpdrepov 
5é xépave, ‘mix the drink livelier, does not mean ‘ mix 
it stronger’ as for hard drinkers, but ‘ mix it quicker.’ 

102 * XXV. 10—14. 1461 a 17—27 

pa Oeot Te Kat avépes ebdov Travviyior”* awa SE dnow “H 
v¢ 3 ’ / \ ai \ > = > a ? 
Tot OT és Tedtov TO Tpwixov abpnceiev, avrda@v aupiyyov 
@ Guadov:”*? to yap mavTes avtTl Tov ToANOL KaTa peTa- 
ye yap 
\ yy \ \ an 4 \ : er.” 4 é ” 
20 Popay elpynTat, TO yap Tav TOAD TL: Kal TO “ olin cijLo- 
293 \ , \ \ , / 41 
pos” kata petapopay, TO yap yvwepi“~eTaToy movoy. KaTa 
dé mpocwdiayv, dotep ‘Immias édXvev 0 Odovos Td “ Sidopev 
8é 0f”* Kal “7d pev of xatamvOeTar buBpo.”” Ta 5é Siacpé- 12 
cet, olov Kyredoxrns “aivra dé Ovijr épdovto, Ta Tpiv pa- 
> / ’ 95 / \ / 33 \ re / 
25 Oov abavar <civai>,fwpate ply Kéxpynto. Ta dé audiBoNria, 13 
“mapoynkev O€ Théo VUE-”* TO yap TrELw aupiBoror éoTuV. 

\ \ \ \ 7 a / la) / e A 9 f 

1 Tliad ii. 1, &ddou wév pa Beot re kat dvépes immoxopveral 
eddov travvtx.ol. 

Ib. x. 1, Grou pev rapa vynvolv apiorjes Tlavaxacdv 
edov Travrvlyx.ot. 

2 Tb. x. 11, 4 rou br’ és wediov 7d Tpwikdy dOpjoecer, 
Oabuater mupd moda Ta Kalero "Ihid0 mpé, 
avrAGv cuplyywr 7 évoriv buaddy 7’ avOpmorwr, 

3 Ib, xviii. 489, otn & &upopds éore NoerpSv ’Qxeavoto. 

4 Tb. xxi. 297, Sidouev 5é of edxos dpéoOar. Sed in Jliade ii. 15 (de 

quo hic agitur) Tpweoor 5¢ xjde’ Epjrrat. 

5 Tb. xxiii. 328, 7d pév ob karam’derar buBpw. 

6 7b, x. 251, pdra yap vvé dverar, eyybOe 5 Hows, 
dorpa d¢ Oh mpoBéBnxe, mapwxnkev 5é rhéwv vvé 
tiv Sto poipdwy, Tpitarn 8 ert woipa héNevrrau. 

17, immoxopvorat (Homerus) post dvépes add. Christ, habuit iam 2 (cf. Arab. 
‘ceteri quidem homines et dei qui equis armati insident’) daravres 
post eddov intercidisse suspicatur Bywater 19. 6 duadov Sylburg: re 
duaddv (Suadov apogr.) A° rod add. apogr.: om. A° 23. dé ol 
apogr.: dé A° 25. elvac Riccardianus 46, add. Vettori ex Athenaco x. 
423 fwpd Athenaeus: {da codd, te <&> amply Gomperz secutus 
Bergkium xéxpnro (¢ sup. scr. m. rec.) A®: Kéxpiro apogr.: Axpyra 
Karsten (ed. Empedocles) 26. wréw A®: mdéov apogr.: mdéwy Ald. 
27. Tov xexpayévov apogr.: Tov Kexpapévww AS: <éca> rdv Kexpapévwv 
Vahlen: <dca ro>rdv xKexpayévww Ueberweg: mav xexpayévoy Bursian 
<olovotv> Tucker; <a> olim conieci 


Sometimes an expression is metaphorical, as ‘ Now all 10 
gods and men were sleeping through the night,—-while at 
the same time the poet says: ‘ Often indeed as he turned 
his gaze to the Trojan plain, he marvelled at the sound 
of flutes and pipes,’ ‘All’ is here used metaphorically 
for ‘many, all being a species of many. So in the 
verse,—‘ alone she hath no part .. , oly, ‘alone, is 
metaphorical; for the best known may be called the 
only one. 

Again, the solution may depend upon accent or 11 
breathing. Thus Hippias of Thasos solved the difficulties 
in the lines,—Sidopuev (Scddpev) Sé of, and 7d pév od (ov) 
Katatverat OuBpo. 

Or again, the question may be solved by punctuation, 12 
as in Empedocles,—‘ Of a sudden things became mortal 
that before had learnt to be immortal, and things un- 
mixed before mixed.’ 

Or again, by ambiguity of meaning,—as map- 13 
oxnceyv Se mréo vié, where the word mdAéw is 

Or by the usage of language. Thus any mixed 14 

drink is called oivos, ‘wine’ Hence Ganymede is said 

104 XXV. 14—17. 1461 a 28—1461 b 10 

5 a / : mh 
gpacw eivat, [O0ev teroinra, “Kvnuls veotevKTov KacoLTé- 
M11 ¢ / 
poto” |” d0ev eipnras o Vavupndns “Art otvoyoeder,”” od muvov- 
> \ / \ \ / > / v 
30 TwY oivov, Kal yYadKéas TOVs TOY cidnpov épyalouévous. ln 15 
> ry tee a 
S dv rodr0 ye <Kai> kata petadhopdv. Set dé cal bray dvoma 
TL UTevavTiowd TL SOK onuaivew, émicKoTreiy Tocaxyas av 
, a > n> / @ AY pg ted eer at 
onpaivor TodTo év TO eipnucve, olov To “TH p ExryeTo yadKEOV 
éyxos,*® 7d TadTn KoArAVOhvaL Tocayas évdéyeTar. wdi <dé> 16 
‘ A \ \ 
35 [) @s] wadsot’ ay Tis DroNdBol, KATA THY KATAYTLKPD 7) @S 
4 / 
sib Aavewv réyes, Ott Evia Adoyws MpovTroAauBdvovow Kal 
/ / 
avtol Katandiodpevot svddroyifovtar Kal ws eipnKdTos 6 
A a > a a a 
Tu Soxel érriTipaow, av TevayTioy 7 TH aVTAV oinoe. Tod- 
de / Q \ \ it / yy \ ; es / 
to 5é métrovOe Ta Trept ‘Ikdpiov. olovrar yap avtov AdKkwva 
5 elvau: arotrov ovv TO pn) evTuyeivy Tov Tnréuayov avT@ et 
#1) x NACLAN UT@D “C05 
/ \ a 
Aaxedaipova éXOovta. TO 8 icws Eyer Womep of Kehari- 
f > Din \ a / \ > Ul 
vés act Tap avTav yap yar éyovar Tov ‘Odvacéa 
kat eivat “Inddvoy add ovK« “IKdpiov: 81° auaptnua 81) Td 
/ / \ 4 
mpoBAnpa eixos é€otiv. Orws S5é TO advvaToV pev Tmpos THY 17 

\ / al 
10 Toinow % mpos TO BéXTLOv 1) Tpos THY okay Set avayew. 

1 Tliad xxi. 592. 2 Tb. xx. 234. 
3 Tb, xx. 272, rp p’ erxero pelhwov eyxos. 

28. 80ev—xKacorrépao secl. M. Schmidt 29-30. verba 86ev etpyrar— 
olvoy in codd. post épyagouévous posita huc revocavit Maggi e cod. Lampridii 
29. olvoxoever A®: olvoxoevew apogr. mewbdvTwy pr. AS 31. xal add. 
Heinsius 31-82. dvéuare brevayrudpare AC doxh apogr.: Soxet A& 38. 
onuatvo. Vahlen (ed. 1): onualvoe A: onujveev Parisinus 2038: onpatvece 
alia apographa 33-35. olov 7d <év rG> ‘' rH—7d rabry KwrvOjvat [roca- 
xOs] éevdéxerar SurdGs, } ws udduor’ dy tis x.7.A. M. Schmidt 34. dé 
addidi 35. 4 ws olim secl. Bywater wd 4 <wdl>, ws Riccardianus 46 
1461 b 1. évio Vettori 2. elpnxédros Riccardianus 46: elpnxdres dre AS 
3. avréy Parisinus 2038, coni. Heinsius: a’rdy codd. 7. abr&y apogr. : 
a’rav Ac 8. de’ dudprnua Magei: diaudprnwa codd. 6 Gomperz : 
dé codd. 9. <elvar> elxds éoriw Hermann (fort. recte): elkéds éors 
<-yevésOa.> Gomperz <i> mpos Ald. fort. recte 


‘to pour the wine to Zeus,’ though the gods do not 
drink wine. So too workers in iron are called yadxéas, 
or workers in bronze. This, however, may also be taken 
as a metaphor. 

Again, when a word seems to involve some incon- 15 
sistency of meaning, we should consider how many 
senses it may bear in the particular passage. For 16 
example: ‘there was stayed the spear of bronze ’—we 
should ask in how many ways we may take ‘being 
checked there. The true mode of interpretation is the 

1461 b precise opposite of what Glaucon mentions. Critics, he 
says, jump at certain groundless conclusions; they pass 
adverse judgment and then proceed to reason on it; and, 
assuming that the poet has said whatever they happen 
to think, find fault if a thing is inconsistent with their 
own fancy. The question about Icarius has been treated 
in this fashion. The critics imagine he was a Lacedae- 
monian. They think it strange, therefore, that Tele- 
machus should not have met him when he went to 
Lacedaemon. But the Cephallenian story may perhaps 
be the true one. They allege that Odysseus took a wife 
from among themselves, and that her father was Icadius 
not Icarius. It is merely a mistake, then, that gives 
plausibility to the objection. 3 

In general, the impossible must be justified by 17 

reference to artistic requirements, or to the higher 

106 XXV. 17—XXVI. 1. 1461 b 11—28 

Tpos Te yap THY Toinow aipeTétepov mibavov advvaTov 4) 
atiavov kai dvvatov. <kal icws advvatov> ToLovTous Eivat, 
olous Ledfis éypadev: addrd Berto: TO yap Tapadevypa Set 
UTepéyelv. pos <0 > & hacww, Tadoya: oT TE Kal OTL TOTE 

15 OVK ddoyor eoTLV* EiKOS yap Kal Tapa TO EeiKoS yiverBar. Tas 18 
Urevavtios eipnuéva olT@ oKoTeEly, BoTEp of év TOS AOroLS 
Edeyyot, ef TO avTO Kal Tpds TO avTO Kal w@oatTws, WoTE 

Kat duTéov 7) Tpos & adTos Reyes 7) 0 av dhpovipos br0bH- 

tat. 0p0n & éritipnots Kal adoyia nat pwoxOnpia, Stay pa) 19 

20 avayKns ovons unbev ypnonta: TO ddoyw, wotrep Kvpimidns 
TO Aiyet, 4 TH Tovnpia, woTrep €év "Opéotn rod Meveddov. 
Ta pev ody érritipnyata ex TévTe Eld@v Pépovoly, 7) yap ws 20 
adtvata 7) @: ddoya i) ws BraBepa 7 os trevayTia 7) ws 
Tapa tiv opOdtnta Thy KaTa Téyvnv. ai 5é Adoeis eK TOV 
25 eipnuévov aplOuav oxerréat, cioly O¢ dHdexa. 
XXVI Ilétepoy dé BeAtiov 1 érorrowuwKy pipnoss 7) 1) TpayiKn, 
Siatropyaeev av Tis. eb yap h HTTov poptiKy BerTiov, Toav- 

Tn 5 1) pos Bertiovs Ocatds éotw det, Nav Shrov Gre H 

11. weiBavdv AS 12. dmel@avoy A <kxal tows ddivarov> Gomperz, 
secutus Margoliouth (‘fortasse enim impossibile est’ Arabs): kai ef ddvvarov 
coniecerat Vahlen 13. ofovs Parisinus 2038, Ald.: ofoy As 14, & add. 
Ueberweg (auctore Vahleno) 16. drevavriws Twining (cf. Arab. ‘quae 
dicta sunt in modum contrarii’): drevavria ws codd.: ws brevayria Heinsius 
17. ore kat Avréov M. Schmidt: dore xal avrdv codd. 18. ppdvinos 
apogr.: Ppédvnuoy (corr. m. rec. Ppdvimov) A& 19. ddoyla kat poxAnpia 
Vahlen: ddoyia cat pwoxOnpla codd. 20. fort. <mpds> pndév Gomperz 
21. rw Alye? } ry margo Riccardiani 16: 7@ aiyerpryn A° <TH > Tod coni. 
Vahlen 26. Bedriwy apogr.: Bédriov AS 28. 8 % apogr.: 6) A® 
del, Nilay Vahlen: decay codd. 


reality, or to received opinion. With respect to the 
requirements of art, a probable impossibility is to be 
preferred to a thing improbable and yet possible. Again, 
it may be impossible that there should be men such as 
Zeuxis painted. ‘Yes, we say, ‘but the impossible is 
the higher thing; for the ideal type must surpass the 
reality. To justify the irrational, we appeal to what is 
commonly said to be. In addition to which, we urge 
that the irrational sometimes does not violate reason ; 
just as ‘it is probable that a thing may happen contrary 
to probability,’ | 

Things that sound contradictory should be examined 18 
by the same rules as in dialectical refutation—whether 
the same thing is meant, in the same relation, and in the 
same sense. We should therefore solve the question by 
reference to what the poet says himself, or to what is 
tacitly assumed by a person of intelligence. 

The element of the irrational, and, similarly, depravity 19 
of character, are justly censured when there is no inner 
necessity for introducing them. Such is the irrational 
element in the introduction of Aegeus by Euripides and 
the badness of Menelaus in the Orestes. 

Thus, there are five sources from which critical 20 
objections are drawn. Things are censured either as 

: impossible, or irrational, or morally hurtful, or contra- 
dictory, or contrary to artistic correctness. The answers 
should be sought under the twelve heads above mentioned. 

XXVI The question may be raised whether the Epic or 
Tragic mode of imitation is the higher. If the more 
refined art is the higher, and the more refined in every 
case is that which appeals to the better sort of audience, 

108 XXVI. 1—4. 1461 b 29—1462 a 15 

¢ vA 4 id \ >] J / A 
dmavTa piovpévn Poptikyn: ws yap ovK aicOavopévev av 
fal \ / A A 
30 1) aVTOS TpocOH, TOAAHV KivnoW KLWodVTAL, OloV oi hadroL 
, = 
avAntal KvdAcopevot Av Siokov Sén ppetoOar, Kal EXKovTes 
\ Qn / a 
Tov Kopupatoy av SKvAXav avrAawow. ev ovr Tpaywoia 2 
, n 
TOLAUTN eoTiVv, @S Kal OL TpPOTEPOV TOUS tatépous aVT@V WovTO 
broKpiTas* ws Mav yap bTepBddrovTa TiOnKov 6 Muvvickos 
\ , / / 
35 TOV Kadnderrridny éxdder, Tovattn bé¢ d0&a Kal mept Iluv- 
1462a Sdpov wv: ws & ovTos éyovot mpds avTovs, 1) SAN Téyvn 
\ A N / v 4A \ 9S \ BI al 
Mpos THY éTOTTOWaY Exel. TY mev Odv Tpds DeaTas erteLKeis 

9s A >Q\ lA ca / \ \ 
pacw eivat <ol> ovdev déovtat TAY oynMaTOV, THY dé Tparyt- 


x \ / / a 
Knv mpos pavrous: et ody hopTiKyH, yeipwv Shrov Ste av ein. 
n \ i > a a e€ / > \ n 
5 TPOTOV péev OVY OV THS TowmTiKHS 1) KaTnYyopia adda THS 
e fol > \orv / @ a / \ 2 
UTOKPLTLKHS, ETrel EaTL TEpLepy ated Gas Tots onmeEtols Kal paryro- 
5 n 4 > \ > / \ 8 / 7 2 / 
ovvta, otrep [€oti] Ywoictpatos, Kai Siadovta, Strep érroiet 
e \ / 
Mvacideos 0 "Orovvtios. ita ove Kivnots Gtraca atroéoKi- 
pactéa, eltrep und pxnats, add 7 havror, dtrep kal Karrer- 
/ b] a \ ta) BA e > / An 
10 TLOn ETeTYLAaTO Kal VoVY adXroLs @S oUK éAEvOépas YyuvaiKas 
/ 4 ¢e / \ » / a \ Coy 
pipovpevav. ETL Tpaywdia Kal dvev KIWHTEwWS TrOLEL TO AUTIS, 
ef eS / \ \ URS / \ e , 
@omep ) érroTrotias Sua yap Tov avaywodoKew pavepa oTroia 
A ] > 5S > / > + / fal / > > 
n > nae / ” 3.53 3} \ , > + ce a) 
kaiov auth UTdpyev. oti S evel TA TavT exer OoaTrep 1) Er0- 4 

‘ \ \ al / ” a » ER > \ 
15 oud (Kal yap TO méeTpM eLeoTL ypHoOar), Kal ETL Ov pLKpOY 

30. kwotvra apogr.: Kwodvra A® 1462 a 1. éyovor apogr.: 4’ éxovor 

Ae avro’s Hermann: avrods codd, 3. of add. Vettori: éet Christ 
oxnudTwv Thy apogr.: oxnud|ra abrhy (ra av m. rec, in litura) A¢ 

4. ei apogr.: ) A® 5. odv add. Parisinus 2038, coni. Bywater, Ussing : 

om. cett. 7. éort secl. Spengel diddovra Maggi: diddovra apogr. : 

diaddvra Ac 8. 6 movvrios AS 10. émeriparo pr. A& ll. airijs 

apogr.: adris Ac 12. omoia A° 14. adrp apogr.: air) A& ort 

5° éwet Gomperz: for. 8’, bri Usener : émerra did7t codd. 


the art which imitates anything and everything is 
manifestly most unrefined. The audience is supposed to 
be too dull to comprehend unless something of their own 
is thrown in by the performers, who therefore indulge 
in restless movements. Bad flute-players twist and twirl, 
if they have to represent ‘ the quoit-throw, or hustle the 
coryphaeus when they perform the ‘Scylla.’ Tragedy, 2 
it is said, has this same defect. We may compare the 
opinion that the older actors entertained of their suc- 
cessors. Mynniscus used to call Callippides ‘ape’ on 
account of the extravagance of his action, and the same 
1462 view was held of Pindarus. Tragic art, then, as a whole, 
stands to Epic in the same relation as the younger to 
the elder actors. So we are told that Epic poetry is 
addressed to a cultivated audience, who do not need 
gesture; Tragedy, to an inferior public. Being then 3 
unrefined, it is evidently the lower of the two. | 
Now, in the first place, this censure attaches not to 
the poetic but to the histrionic art; for gesticulation 
may be equally overdone in epic recitation, as by Sosi- 
stratus, or in lyrical competition, as by Mnasitheus the 
Opuntian. Next, all action is not to be condemned— 
any more than all dancing—but only that of bad per- 
formers. Such was the fault found in Callippides, as 
also in others of our own day, who are censured for 
representing degraded women. Again, Tragedy like Epic 
poetry produces its effect even without action; it reveals 
its power by mere reading. If, then, in all other respects 
it is superior, this fault, we say, is not inherent in it. 
And superior it is, because it has all the epic 
elements—it may even use the epic metre—with the 

110 XXVI. 4—8. 1462 a 16—1462 b 19 

/ \ \ \ \ bs 8 x7 & e 1d \ / 
pépos THY povotKiY Kal TAS OrYvels, Se’ As ai HSoval cvvicTav- 
\ \ a 
Tat €vapyéoTata* eta Kal TO évapyés Eyer Kal év TH avayve- 
Se Oh oes, fer ” : s / As fee 
ce. Kal ert TOY Epywv' ETL TO ev EXATTOVL NKEL TO TENOS 5 
a / n 
1462b THS popenoews elvas (TO yap AOpowrTepoy Hdiov 7) TOAAS KeKpa- 
a , s \ 
pévov TO xpov@s Aéyw 8 olov ef tis Tov Oidizrouy Bein 
Tov Yopokréous év errecw Goous 1) “Iduds)* Ere Hrtov pia 2 6 
n lal n e n 
pinot TOV émoTroL@v (onpeioy Sé+ Ex yap oTOLacOdY 
/ / bh / e 20 \ 4 
5 [puepnoews] mAelovs Tpaywdiar yivoyTat), @oTE éayv pev eva 
na lal x : td / 4 / 
pd0ov Troma, i) Bpaxéws Secxvipevoy pvoupor paivecOat, 4) 
ixoNoVOOD ) TULMETPO pL ydaph Neyo O€ 
axorovbotvTa Te TUmpéTpY pHKer Vdaph. * * éyw O€ 
/ 3 bf 
olov éav éx wreLovev Tpdkewv 7 cvyKEtmévyn, OoTrep H Idsas 
éyer TodAd TovadTa pépn Kal 7 "Oddooaa & Kal Kal? 
/ / fa) 

10 éauTa ever péyeOos* Kaito. TadTa Ta ToIjpata ovvérTHKEV 
¢ b] / bla \ @ / ca) / / 
os évdéyeTar dpiota Kal OTe pdduota pias mpakews pipwy- 

4 / lal a n 
aus. eb ovv TovTous Te Siahéper TaoW Kal ETL TH THS TéexVNS 7 
a \ a \ a 
Epym (Sef yap od Thy Tuxovcay Hdoviyy Tovey adTas aa 
/ \ 4 / x a a 
THv eipnuévnv), pavepov OTe KpeitT@v ay ein paddAov Tod 
an / 
/ lal 
Tept pev ovv tpaypdias Kal éromrotias, Kal avTov 8 
\ n Sa Y a a \ / \ / / 
Kal TOV elO@V Kal TOY pEpOV, Kal Toca Kal Ti Svadéper, 
a \ / FF \ 
Kal TOD ev %) py Tives atTial, Kal Tepl émiTinoewY Kai 

4 } a 6, a 
Avoewv, cipnoOw TocavTa, * * * 

16. kat ras des secl. Spengel: post évapyéorara collocavit Gomperz: Kal ri 
dyv Ald. dv’ ds (vel als) coni. Vahlen: 6’ js codd. 17. dvayvaoer 
Maggi: dvayvwpices A® 18. ére 7d Winstanley: é@re r@ codd. 

1462 b 1. Hdvov } Maggi: jdetov 4 Riccardianus 16: jdovy A® 2. rov 
dirouv pr. A® Gein bis A 3. % ids Riccardianus 16: 4 idas (fuit 
ldlas) A° pla 4 Spengel: 7 ula A°: pla oroacody Riccardianus 16 

5. pupnoews secl, Gomperz 6. pelovpoy Parisinus 2038 7. cuppérpy 
Bernays: 70d pérpou codd.: fort. rob perplov (cf. 1458 b 12) post vdaph, 
<édy 6€ mdelous> Ald.: <Aéyw dé ofoy « ¢ av Sé wh, od pla H wlunois> 
coni. Vahlen: <édyv 6é melovs, ob} pla 4 pwlunots> Teichmiiller: lacunam 
aliter supplevi, vide versionem 9. & add, apogr. 10. kalroe Tatra 
7a Riccardianus 16: kat rowair’ drra AC 18. # apogr.: ef A° 


music and spectacular effects as important accessories ; 
and these produce the most vivid of pleasures. Further, 
it has vividness of impression in reading as well as in 
representation. Moreover, the art attains its end within 5 

1462p narrower limits; for the concentrated effect is more 

pleasurable than one which is spread over a long time 
and so diluted. What, for example, would be the effect 
of the Oedipus of Sophocles, if it were cast into a form 
as long as the Iliad? Once more, the Epic imitation 6 
has less unity; as is shown by this, that any Epic poem 
will furnish subjects for several tragedies. Thus if the 
story adopted by the poet has a strict unity, it must 
either be concisely told and appear truncated; or, if it 
conform to the Epic canon of length, it must seem weak 
and watery. <Such length implies some loss of unity,> 
if, I mean, the poem is constructed out of several actions, 
like the Iliad and the Odyssey, which have many such 
parts, each with a certain magnitude of its own. Yet 
these poems are as perfect as possible in structure; each 
is, in the highest degree attainable, an imitation of a 
single action. 

\ If, then, Tragedy is superior to Epic poetry in all these 7 
respects, and, moreover, fulfils its specific function better 
as an art—for each art ought to produce, not any chance 
pleasure, but the pleasure proper to it, as already stated 
—it plainly follows that Tragedy is the higher art, as 
attaining its end more perfectly. } 

Thus much may suffice concerning Tragic and Epics 
poetry in general; their several kinds and parts, with 
the number of each and their differences; the causes 
that make a poem good or bad; the objections of the 
critics and the answers to these objections. # «# « 

4 * 



EO Ugo ake 

Tap A 


Se a eS eee 

Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 175. 6a. net. 


THE OXFORD MAGAZINE.—“ The whole volume is 
delightfully fresh and readable; nor can any reader lay it down 
without a cordial appreciation of the style as the matter of 
the writer—the real value of his judgments, and the graceful touch 
which gives life and movement and charm to all he has to say.” 

THE CLASSICAL REV/IEW.—*“ He is extremely lucid 
and he writes with a command of graceful language not always 
given to scholars.” 

THE ST. JAMES’S GAZETTE,.—“ Professor Butcher 
writes so fluently and brightly, that in reading these essays we 
are in danger of overlooking his solid attainments and accurate 

THE GLOBE.—*“ Popular at once in treatment and in style, 
and calculated, therefore, first to attract and then to retain the 
attention of a large number of the public. . . . Professor Butcher 
writes a clear and limpid style, his criticism is eminently fair and 
candid, and his book, as a whole, is as informing and suggestive 
as it is readable,” 

Fourth Edition. 8vo. 12s. 6d. net. 



PILOT.—** When Professor Butcher’s first edition appeared in 
1895 it at once took its place among the few really important con- 
tributions to classical learning which the last years of the nineteenth 
century witnessed. . . . We are glad to be able to infer from the 
rapid sale of the first and second editions that the public appreciates 
the boon which Professor Butcher has conferred upon them.” 

OXFORD MAGAZINE.— “By far the best translation of 
the Poetics that has yet appeared, and one which will render the 
treatise thoroughly accessible in a reliable and most readable form 
to all literary students, whether they are Greek scholars or not.” 



Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. net. 


CLASSICAL REVIEW.—* Of a volume the contents of which are 
in form and substance alike admirable throughout it would be superfluous, 
if not impossible, to offer any detailed criticism.” 

Fap. 8vo. 1s. 9d. 


[Classical Writers, 

SATURDAY REVIEW.—‘‘It is perhaps superfluous to say that Mr. 
Butcher’s work is well done.” 

PALL MALL GAZETTE.—“ There is probably no better statement 
of the political situation of Greece and Macedon, and no better exposition 
of the character, aims, and style of Demosthenes to be found in English.” 

ATHENZUM.—‘‘ .. excellent work is most pleasant reading. 
The criticism is admirable throughout.” 
Crown 8vo. 10S. net. 

School Edition. Paper Cover. Crown 8vo. 4s. 


By S. H. BUTCHER, D.Lirr., LL.D. 
A. LANG, M.A. 

SATURDAY REVIEW.—“ The present brilliant translation of the 
Odyssey is another most gratifying proof of the taste and soundness of 
English scholarship. . . . The brilliant and exact scholarship of Mr. 
Butcher is happily combined with Mr. Lang’s wide knowledge of the early 
poetry of different peoples. The translation is good for all readers.” 

PALL MALL GAZETTE.—‘. . . may be heartily congratulated 
on the success of their attempt. They have produced a work which will 
not only be appreciated by scholars, but will reproduce for those who are 
unable to read Homer in the original an unusually large measure of the 
Homeric power and charm.” 





Texts, edited with Introductions and Notes, for the 
use of Advanced Students. 

Prof. T. G. TUCKER. 12s, net. 

THE AGAMEMNON. With Translation. By A. W. 
VERRALL, Litt.D. Second Edition. 12s. 6d. net. 

THE CHOEPHORI. Bythe same. 12s. 6d. net. 

THE EUMENIDES. With Translation. By the same 
12s, 6d, net. 

By the Rt. Hon. W. J. M. STARKIE, M.A. 12s. 6d. net. 

THE CLOUDS. By the Rt. Hon. W. J. M. STARKIE, M.A. 
15s, net. 

SUSEMIHL and R. D. HIcks, 18s. net. 

J. E. SANDys, Litt.D. Second Edition. 16s, net. 


TIONE VERBORUM. With Translation. By Prof. 
W. RuHyYsS ROBERTS. 12s. 6d, net. 

ENGLAND, M.A. 7s. 6d. net. 

OF THE EAST. By Prof. A. H. SAYCE. 16s. net. 

Books IV., V., and VI. With Introduction by REGINALD 
WALTER MAcAN, D.Litt. In two volumes. 8vo, 25s. 

Books VII., VIII, and IX. With Introduction and Notes by 
R. W. Macan, D.Litt. 3 vols. 8vo. 4os. net. 




HOMER.—THE ILIAD. By WALTER Leaf, Litt.D. Second 
Edition. Books I.-XII. Books XIIL-XXIV. 18s. net 

E. E, SIKES, M.A. 12s. 6d. net. 

Translation. By HASTINGS CROSSLEY, M.A. 6s. 6d, net. 

by Sir J. G. FRAZER. Illustrated. 6 vols. 126s. net. 

M.A. 12s, net. 

THE ISTHMIAN ODES. By the same. 12s. net. 


THE MYTHS OF PLATO. Translated, with Introductory 

and other Observations, by J. A. STEWART, M.A. 8vo. 
17s. net. 

HISTORY OF ART. Translated by K. JEx-BLAKE. 
Introduction and Notes by E. SELLERS and H. L. URLICHS. 
I5s. net. 

SPONSIS. By E. G. Harpy, M.A. 12s, net. 

M.A. With Maps, _ 16s. net. 

Introduction and Notes, by Sir R. C. JEBB. Edited by Sir 
J. E. SANDYS. 8vo. Ios, net. 




sabe cae ee Se 

Tee eet 






3893 * 
- P5B8 

were ite 

Ce ee eed 
A pes 

sly $y oy Hirer Peon Neneh tee we 
: ity A Asean ee Ae 

liek gus RL pe aan 
Dp ie eaabs henner 



“pv Setar tc tan Cs 

or Sees 


mn Fp Sap hms 

ment 2 fm 

i ‘py aee pms